Morphological Diversity and Distribution of Etlingera littoralis (König) Giseke (Zingiberaceae) in Southern Thailand
Keywords:Etlingera littoralis, Etlingera sp., Zingiberaceae, southern Thailand, morphological diversity, distribution
AbstractEtlingera littoralis is a common ground species in Zingiberaceae. It is widely distributed in Peninsular Thailand both in the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea coasts. The morphological characters of E. littoralis and two related species, E. megalocheilos and Etlingera sp. are similar. Although E. megalocheilos were not found in this study, its morphological characters from previous studies indicated that E. littoralis and E. megalocheilos are different species. Interestingly, an unknown Etlingera sp. was found instead. The morphological character of Etlingera sp. is superficially similar to E. littoralis. The morphological characters of both E. littoralis and Etlingera sp. were studied using R statistic. The results showed that E. littoralis and Etlingera sp. can be clearly separated by reproductive parts (inflorescence color pattern, labellum length, labellum and stamen length ratio, and angle of anther). The morphological characters indicate that E. littoralis and Etlingera sp. can be classified as 2 different species.
BL Burtt and RM Smith. Etlingera: the inclusive name for Achasma, Geanthus and Nicolaia (Zingiberaceae). Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburg 1986; 43, 235-41.
RM Smith. A review of Bornean Zingiberaceae: II (Alpineae, Concluded). Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 1986; 43, 439-66.
R Development Core Team. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna, Austria. Available at: http://www.R-project.orgi, accessed 2012.
N Kittipanagkul and C Ngamriabsakul. Pollen and pollinator limitation of seed initiation in Etlingera littoralis (J. Konig) Giseke (Zingiberaceae) in Klong Klai Basin, Khao Nan National Park, Thailand. Walailak J. Sci. & Tech. 2006; 3, 207-17.
P Sirirugsa. Thai Zingiberaceae: species diversity and their uses. Pure Appl. Chem. 1998; 70, 1-8.
CA Pendry, ANP John and CVW Peter. Biogeographic links between Thailand and Nepal and potential for collaboration between their flora projects. Thai Forest Bull. (Botany) 2009; S1, 169-85.
TC Whitemore. Tropical Rainforests of the Far East. Oxford, University, Press, 1984.
DS Woodruf. The location of the Indochinese-Sundaic biogeographic transition in plants and birds. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 2003; 97, 97-108.
AD Poulsen. Etlingera of Borneo. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2006, p. 1-263.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2013 Walailak University
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.