Evaluation of antioxidant activity and inhibition of tyrosinase activity of Raphanus sativus var. caudatus Alef extract

Panadda Yongpradoem, Natthida Weerapreeyakul

Abstract


This study was aimed to determine antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition effects of the pod of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef extract.  The compounds consisted in the extracts were identified by HPLC from standard peak comparison.  Pod was extracted by using two difference solvents—dichloromethane (DCM) and water.  The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on free radical scavenging (DPPH) ability and ferric reducing ability (FRAP) assay.  The lightening effect was determined from the inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase in vitro.  Results showed that DCM extract contained sulforaphene, sulforaphane, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid.  Aqueous extract contained sulforaphene, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid.  The DPPH· scavenging effect expressed as the IC50 values for DCM and aqueous extracts were 883.38±22.9 µg/ml and 1,160.49±22.30 µg/ml, respectively.  The reducing power of aqueous extract was greater than DCM extract at the same 2,000 µg/ml, which were expressed as 218.27±0.010 µM and 166.34±0.018 µM FeSO4 equivalent, respectively.  However, both extracts showed lesser antioxidant activity than gallic acid, a positive control.  DCM extract showed higher tyrosinase inhibitory effect than aqueous extract but lesser than kojic acid, a positive control.  Both extracts at 2,000 µg/ml concentration exerted respective 42% and 19% tyrosinase inhibition.  In conclusion, the extraction solvent influenced on the activities.  DCM extract exerted greater antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibition activity than aqueous extract.  The extract fractionation is required to get higher yields of bioactive compounds prior to further study and for cosmetics product development.


Keywords


HPLC, antioxidant, antityrosinase, Raphanus sativus var. caudatus Alef, Thai rat-tailed radish

References


Desmedt, B. et al. Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe. JEADV. 2016; 30, 943-950, https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.13595.

Sun, G.F., Hu, W.T., Yuan, Z.H., Zhang, B.A., & Lu, H. Characteristics of Mercury Intoxication Induced by Skin-lightening Products. Chinese-Med J-Peking, 2017; 130, 3003-3004, DOI: 10.4103/0366-6999.220312.

Couteau, C., & Coiffard, L. Overview of skin whitening agents: drugs and cosmetic products. Cosmetics. 2016; 3, 27, https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics3030027.

Chohan, S.N., Suhail, M., Salman, S., Bajwa, U.M., Saeed, M., Kausar, S., & Suhail, T. Facial abuse of topical steroids and fairness creams: a clinical study of 200 patients. JPAD. 2014; 24, 204-211,

Songsak, T., & Lockwood, G. Glucosinolates of seven medicinal plants from Thailand. Fitoterapia. 2002; 73, 209-216, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00061-8

Pocasap, P., Weerapreeyakul, N., & Barusrux, S. Cancer preventive effect of Thai rat-tailed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef). J Funct Food. 2013; 5, 1372-1381, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.022.

Sangthong, S., Weerapreeyakul, N., Lehtonen, M., Leppanen, J., & Rautio, J. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for identification of sulphur-containing bioactive constituents and flavonoids in extracts of Raphanus sativus var. caudatus Alef (Thai rat-tailed radish). J Funct Food. 2017; 31, 237-247, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2017.02.003.

Sangthong, S., Weerapreeyakul, N., & Barusrux, S. Antiproliferative Effect of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef in Human Breast MCF-7 and Human Lung SK-LU1 Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines. IJPS. 2015; 10, 75-81.

Sangthong, S., Weerapreeyakul, N., & Barusrux, S. Cell survival inhibitory effect of Raphanus sativus v. caudatus Alef extracts against non-resistant HepG2 and resistant HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma. The 34th National Graduate Research Conference, Khon Kaen, Khon Kaen University. 2016, p 80-83

Charoonratana, T., Settharaksa, S., Madaka, F., & Songsak, T. Screening of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Raphanus sativus pod. In J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014; 6, 224-226.

Siddiq, A., & Younus, I. Screening in- vitro antifungal activity of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus. WJPP Sci. 2015; 4, 429-437.

Younus, & Siddiq, A. Behavioral evidence of antidepressant-like activity of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus in mice. AJTCAM. 2017; 14, 142, DOI: 10.21010/ajtcam.v14i3.15.

Younus, I., & Siddiq, A. In-Vitro Antileishmanial activity of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus. JBAS. 2016; 12, 242-244, DOI: 10.6000/1927-5129.2016.12.37.

Jakmatakul, R., Suttisri, R., & Tengamnuay, P. Evaluation of antityrosinase and antioxidant activities of Raphanus sativus root: comparison between freeze-dried juice and methanolic extract. TJPS. 2009; 33, 22-30.

Jahangir, M., Kim, H.K., Choi, Y.H., & Verpoorte, R. Health-affecting compounds in Brassicaceae. Compr Rev Food Sci F. 2009; 8, 31-43, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2008.00065.x.

Sangthong, S., & Weerapreeyakul, N. Simultaneous quantification of sulforaphene and sulforaphane by reverse phase HPLC and their content in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef extracts. Food Chem. 2016; 201, 139-144, DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.01.081.

Kaisoon, O., Siriamornpun, S., Weerapreeyakul, N., & Meeso, N. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of edible flowers from Thailand. J Funct Food. 2011; 3, 88-99, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2011.03.002.

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., & Berset, C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 1995; 28, 25-30, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5.

Benzie, I.F., & Strain, J.J. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem. 1996; 239, 70-76, https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1996.0292.

Srisayam, M., Weerapreeyakul, N., Barusrux, S., Tanthanuch, W., & Thumanu, K. Application of FTIR microspectroscopy for characterization of biomolecular changes in human melanoma cells treated by sesamol and kojic acid. J Dermatol Sci. 2014; 73, 241-250, DOI: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2013.11.002.

Shahidi, F., & Zhong, Y. Measurement of antioxidant activity. J Funct Food. 2015; 18, 757-781, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2015.01.047.

Karamac, M., Kosinska, A., & Pegg, R. B. Comparison of radical-scavenging activities for selected phenolic acids. Pol J Food Nutr Sci. 2005; 14, 165-170, http://journal.pan.olsztyn.pl//pdfy/2005/2/rozdzial11.pdf.

Thangboonjit, W., Pluemsamran, T., & Panich, U. Comparative evaluation of antityrosinase and antioxidant activities of dietary phenolics and their activities in melanoma cells exposed to UVA. SMJ. 2014; 66, 5-10.

Duh, P.D., Du, P.C., & Yen, G.C. Action of methanolic extract of mung bean hulls as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and non-lipid oxidative damage. Food Chem Toxicol. 1999; 37, 1055-1061, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00096-4.

Nishaa, S., Vishnupriya, M., Sasikumar, J., Hephzibah, P.C., & Gopalakrishnan, V. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea L. tuberous rhizomes. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012; 5, 85-88.

Csepregi, K., Neugart, S., Schreiner, M., & Hideg, E. Comparative evaluation of total antioxidant capacities of plant polyphenols. Molecules. 2016; 21, 208, DOI: 10.3390/molecules21020208.

Kim, Y.J., & Uyama, H. Tyrosinase inhibitors from natural and synthetic sources: structure, inhibition mechanism and perspective for the future. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005; 62, 1707-1723, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-005-5054-y.

Shirasugi, I., Kamada, M., Matsui, T., Sakakibara, Y., Liu, M.C., & Suiko, M. Sulforaphane inhibited melanin synthesis by regulating tyrosinase gene expression in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010; 74, 579-582, DOI: 10.1271/bbb.90778.

Miyazawa, M., Oshima, T., Koshio, K., Itsuzaki, Y., & Anzai, J. Tyrosinase inhibitor from black rice bran. J Agr Food Chem. 2003; 51, 6953-6956, DOI: 10.1021/jf030388s


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/image012_400

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

http://wjst.wu.ac.th

Last updated: 12 August 2019