Factors Affecting the Biomass and Lipid Production from Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 under Mixotrophic Culture

Mohammad Ariful HAQUE, Phuwadol BANGRAK, Sarote SIRISANSANEEYAKUL, Wanna CHOORIT

Abstract


Effects of media compositions on biomass and lipid accumulation of the isolate Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 were investigated under a Plackett-Burman experimental design with mixotrophic cultivation conditions. Under this experimental design there were 15 different runs with ten factors-yeast extract, KH2PO4, MgSO4, FeSO4, MnCl2, CuSO4, Na2MoO4, H3BO3, ZnSO4 and pH. Cultures were grown mixotrophically under 16 h light and 8 h dark regime at 30 ºC for a period of 7 days. During the light regime, the light intensity at the surface of the vessels and agitation speed were set to 67.5 µmol photons m-2s-1 and 150 rpm, respectively. Initial cell concentration was set to an absorbance (A540) of 0.5. For high biomass production (2.2 g/L, run no. 6), the most effective and significant factors were yeast extract, KH2PO4, FeSO4 and ZnSO4 at concentrations 0.3 g/L, 0.3 g/L, 3 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. Whereas for high lipid accumulation (19.59 %DCW, run no. 2), these were KH2PO4, pH and yeast extract, at a level of 1.7 g/L, 6.0 and 0.1 g/L, respectively. No significant factors were obtained for higher lipid content. The best treatment for biomass and lipid content was run no. 6, whose medium formula consisted of 0.3 g/L yeast extract, 1.7 g/L KH2PO4, 1.7 g/L MgSO4, 1 mg/L FeSO4, 0.9 mg/L MnCl2, and pH 7.0, together with fixed concentrations of glucose, NaHCO3 and KNO3 at 5 g/L, 0.05 g/L and 0.5 g/L, respectively.


Keywords


Biomass, Chlorella sp., mixotroph, Plackett-Burman design, single cell oils

Full Text:

PDF

References


Y Chisti. Biodiesel from microalgae beats bioethanol. Trends Biotechnol. 2008; 26, 126-31.

GH Huang, F Chen, D Wei, XW Zhang and G Chen. Biodiesel production by microalgal biotechnology. Appl. Energy 2010; 87, 38-46.

Y Chisti. Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol. Adv. 2007; 25, 294-306.

MA Borowitzka. Commercial production of microalgae: ponds, tanks, tubes and fermenters. J. Biotechnol. 1999; 70, 313-21.

F Chen and M Johns. A strategy for high cell density culture of heterotrophic microalgae with inhibitory substrates. J. Appl. Phycol. 1995; 7, 43-6.

XL Miao and QY Wu. Biodiesel production from heterotrophic microalgal oil. Bioresour. Technol. 2006; 97, 841-6.

AL Wei, XW Zhang, D Wei, G Chen, QY Wu and ST Yang. Effects of cassava starch hydrolysate on cell growth and lipid accumulation of the heterotrophic microalgae Chlorella protothecoides. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2009; 6, 1383-9.

XW Zhang, YM Zhang and F Chen. Kinetic models for phycocyanin production by high cell density mixotrophic culture of the microalga Spirulina platensis. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 1998; 21, 283-8.

MCC García, JMF Sevilla, FGA Fernandez, EM Grima and FG Camacho. Mixotrophic growth of Phaeodactylum tricornutum on glycerol growth rate and fatty acid profile. J. Appl. Phycol. 2000; 12, 239-48.

PF Ip, KH Wong and F Chen. Enhanced production of astaxanthin by the green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis in mixotrophic culture. Process Biochem. 2004; 39, 1761-6.

MCC García, FG Camacho, AS Miron, JMF Sevilla, Y Chisti and EM Grima. Mixotrophic production of marine microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum on various carbon sources. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2006; 16, 689-94.

W Xiong, XF Li, JY Xiang and QY Wu. High-density fermentation of microalga Chlorella protothecoides in bioreactor for microbio-diesel production. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2008; 78, 29-36.

ME Huntley and DG Redalje. CO2 mitigation and renewable oil from photosynthetic microbes: a new appraisal. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 2007; 12, 573-608.

R Jayasankar and KK Vasala. Influence of different concentrations of sodium bicarbonate on growth rate and chlorophyll content of Chlorella salina. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India. 2008; 50, 74-8.

M Sostaric, J Golob, M Bricelj, D Klinar and A Pivec. Studies on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in culture media with different carbon sources. Chem. Biochem. Eng. 2009; 4, 471-7.

AM Illman, AH Scragg and SW Shales. Increase in Chlorella strains calorific values when grown in low nitrogen medium. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 2000; 27, 631-5.

Y Li, B Wang, N Wu and CQ Lan. Effects of nitrogen sources on cell growth and lipid production of Neochloris oleoabundans. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2008; 81, 629-36.

T Oh-Hama and S Miyachi. Chlorella In: Borowitzka MA and Borowitzka LJ (eds.). Microalgal Biotechnology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988, p. 3-26.

J Ivanova, T Toncheva-Panova, G Chernev and B Samuneva. Effect of Ag+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ containing hybrid nanomatrixes on the green algae Cholrella keissleri. Gen. Appl. Plant Physiol. 2008; 34, 339-46.

PJ Harrison, PA Thompson and GS Calderwood. Effect of nutrient and light limitation on the biochemical composition of phytoplankton. J. Appl. Phycol. 1990; 2, 45-56.

RMA Abedin and HM Taha. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of cyanobacteria and green microalgae. Evaluation of media components by Plackett-Burman design for antimicrobial activity of Spirulina platensis. Global J. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2008; 3, 22-31.

Y Li, Z Liu, F Cui and Z Liu. Application of Plackett-Burman experimental design and Doehlert design to evaluate nutritional requirements for xylanase production by Alternaria mali ND-16. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2007; 77, 285-91.

S Sirisansaneeyakul, S Singhasuwan, W Choorit, N Phoopat, JL Garcia and Y Chisti. Photoautotrophic production of lipids by some Chlorella strains. Mar. Biotechnol. 2011; 13, 928-41.

T Horikoshi, A Nakajima and T Sakaguchi. Accumulation of uranium by Chlorella cells grown under autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic culture conditions. Agric. Biol. Chem. 1981; 454, 781-3.

PA Thompson. Algal Cell Culture. Encyclopedia of Life Support System (EOLSS), Biotechnology Vol 1, Available at: http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c17/

E6-58-01-02.pdf, accessed May 2012.

RW Thimijan, W Richard and RD Heins. Photometric, radiometric, and quantum light units of measure: A review of procedures for interconversion. Hortic. Sci. 1982; 18, 818-22.

EG Bligh and WJ Dyer. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Phys. 1959; 37, 911-7.

CY Chen, KL Yeh, R Aisyah, DJ Lee and JS Chang. Cultivation, photobioreactor design and harvesting of microalgae for biodiesel production: a critical review. Bioresour. Technol. 2011; 102, 71-81.

G Liang, Y Mo, J Tang and Q Zhou. Improve lipid production by pH shifted-strategy in batch culture of Chlorella protothecoides. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 2011; 5, 5030-8.

Y Feng, C Li and D Zhang. Lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris cultured in artificial waste water medium. Bioresour. Technol. 2011; 102, 101-5.

D Eriani, O Suriyaphan and N Chaiyanate. Effect of iron concentration on growth, protein content and total phenolic content of Chlorella sp. cultured in basal medium. Sains Malaysiana 2011; 40, 353-8.

W Wiesnner. Inorganic Micronutrients In: Lewin RA (ed.). Physiology and Biochemistry of Algae. Academic Press, New York, 1962, p. 267-86.

ZA Ansari and M Amjad. Copper toxicity to algae (Chlorella vulgaris). Pak. J. Sci. 2008; 60, 1-2.

G Ulloa, A Otero, M Sanchez, J Sineiro, MJ Nunez and J Fabregas. Effect of Mg, Si, and Sr on growth and antioxidant activity of the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica. J. Appl. Phycol. 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s10811-011-9764-2. Available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/

k8p668q19205422m/fulltext.pdf.

W Shan, S Jingwei and H Yueheng. Experimental study of Zn2+ on growth of Chlorella in reclaimed water for waterscape recharge. Available at: http://zt.cast.org.cn/n12603275/n12603434/12991298.html, accessed June 2011.

A Kuhl. Phosphorus In: Stewart WDP (ed.). Algal Physiology and Biochemistry, Botanical Monographs. California Press, 1974, p. 636-54.

S Fried, B Mackie and E Nothwehr. Nitrate and phosphate levels positively affect the growth of algae species found in Perry Pond. Tillers. 2003; 4, 21-4.

A Amanullah, CM McFarlane, AN Emery and AW Nienow. Scale down model to simulate spatial pH variations in large-scale bioreactors. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2001; 73, 390-9.

M Elibol. Product shifting by controlling medium pH in immobilized Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2) culture. Process Biochem. 2002; 37, 1381-6.

P Ramasamy, S Kalifulla, M Gopalakrishnan, AA Mohammmad and T Nooruddin. Influence of nutrient deprivations on lipid accumulation in a dominant indigenous microalga Chlorella sp., BUM11008: Evaluation for biodiesel production. Biomass Bioenergy 2012; 37, 60-6.

S Boonkerd, MR Detaevernier, Y Vander Heyden, J Vindevogel and Y Michotte. Determination of the enantiomeric purity of dexfenfluramine by capillary electrophoresis: use of a Plackett-Burman design for the optimization of the separation J. Chromatogr. A 1996; 736, 281-9.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/image012_400

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

http://wjst.wu.ac.th

Last updated: 20 June 2019