Seismic Loss Estimation and Reduction after Structural Rehabilitation in Chiang Rai City



Chiang Rai is located in the North of Thailand. The city is in a seismic risk region in which many buildings have inadequate building code enforcement. This paper presents a spatial study of the seismic performance of buildings in Chiang Rai city to establish an earthquake scenario with an assumed magnitude of 5 on the Richter scale. The results of the building damage show that areas that suffer the most occur in a high density building zone. The extent of building damage in the area was about 400,000 m2 in every 1 km2, or 24.79 % of the entire area. The number of human losses was calculated for 2 different times; there were about 712 deaths during the nighttime (at 2:00 AM), and 1,027 during the daytime (at 2:00 PM). Finally, the earthquake risk mitigation team was able to initiate the rehabilitation of some important existing structures to improve their seismic performance, which was carried out under moderate-seismic activity. The important buildings considered here were hospital/emergency services buildings, schools, and government offices, which resulted in the highest consequences. The reduction of the complete damage of those buildings was more than 49 %, and human losses were reduced 75 % during the nighttime and 70.85 % during the daytime. As a result, this information is a good source for government officers to use as a tool to initiate preparation plans against a repeat of this kind of disaster.


Loss estimation, earthquake, rehabilitation, Chiang Rai, building damage

Full Text:



T Ornthammarath. Seismic wave from Mae Lao earthquake 5 May 2014. In: Proceedings of the Mae Lao Earthquake in Chiang Rai Lesson to Learned, Bangkok, Thailand, 2014, p. 31-38.

KM Shedlock, D Giardini, G Grunnthal and P Zhang. The GSHAP global seismic hazard map. Seismol. Res. Lett. 2000; 71, 679-89.

C Palasri and A Ruangrassamee. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Thailand. J. Earthq. Tsunami 2010; 4, 369-86.

T Ornthammarath, P Warnitchai, K Worakanchana, S Zaman, R Sigbjornsson and CG Lai. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Thailand. Bull. Earthq. Eng. 2011; 9, 367-94.

W Wiwakwin and S Cosuwan. Mae Lao earthquake in Chiang Rai and the Mae Lao segment of the Phayao Fault. In: Proceedings of the Mae Lao Earthquake in Chiang Rai Lesson to Learned, Bangkok, Thailand, 2014, p. 39-52.

National Disaster Warning Center, Available at:, accessed July 2014.

P Lukkunaprasit. Earthquake-related disaster mitigation the Thailand experience. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan, 2006.

CH Yeh, CH Loh and KC Tsai. Overview of Taiwan Earthquake Loss Estimation System. Nat. Hazards 2006; 37, 23-37.

S Malina, DH Lang and CD Lindholm. SELENA - An open source tool for seismic risk and loss assessment using a logic tree computation procedure. Comput. Geosci. 2010; 36, 257-89.

H Reza, ZN Budic, AR Akbar, N Mohsen and H Hassan. Interactive approach for GIS-based earthquake scenario development and resource estimate (Karmania hazard model). Comput. Geosci. 2013; 51, 324-38.

N Wood, J Ratliff, J Schelling and C Weaver. Comparing population exposure to multiple Washington earthquake scenarios for prioritizing loss estimation studies. Appl. Geogr. 2014; 52, 191-203.

GJ Nordenson, P G Deodatis, KH Jacob and MW Tantala. Earthquake loss estimation for the New York City area. In: Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand, 2000.

P Pananont, S Habangkham, W Wongwai, P Phonsophin, B Wechbunthung, S Limpisawat and S Cosuwan. Mainshock and aftershocks characteristics within 24 hours of the M 6.1 earthquake on May 5th 2014 in Chiang Rai Province, Northern Thailand from the Department of Mineral Resources Seismic Network. In: Proceedings of the Mae Lao Earthquake in Chiang Rai Lesson to Learned, Bangkok, Thailand, 2014, p. 23-30.

Federal Emergency Management Agency-FEMA. Earthquake Loss Estimation Methodology. HAZUS99 Service Release 2, Technical Manual, Washington DC, USA. 2001.

Federal Emergency Management Agency-FEMA. Multi-Hazard Loss Estimation Methodology - Earthquake Module. HAZUS-MH MR1 Advanced Engineering Building Module, Technical Manual, Washington DC, USA. 2003.

C Hansapinyo and B Charatpangoon. Earthquake loss estimate for Chiang Mai City. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on GIT4NDM, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2010.

C Hansapinyo and K Saicheur. Earthquake loss estimation of Chiang Mai Municipal. In: Proceedings of the 18th National Convention on Civil Engineering, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2013, p. 7-11.

S Saadat, CV Camp and S Pezeshk. Seismic performance-based design optimization considering direct economic loss and direct social loss. Eng. Struct. 2014; 76, 193-201.

Federal Emergency Management Agency-FEMA. Handbook for the Seismic Evaluation of Buildings - A Prestandard. FEMA 310, Washington DC, USA. 1998.

Federal Emergency Management Agency-FEMA. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings. FEMA 222A, Washington DC, USA. 1997.

RR Youngs, SJ Chiou, WL Silva and JR Humphrey. Strong ground motion attenuation relationships for subduction zone earthquakes. Seismol. Res. Lett. 1997; 68, 58-73.

K Sadigh, CY Chang, JA Egan, F Makdisi and RR Youngs. Attenuation relationships for shallow crustal earthquakes based on California Strong Motion Data. Seismol. Res. Lett. 1997; 68, 180-9.

P Warnitchai, C Sangarayakul and SA Ashford. Seismic hazard in Bangkok due to distant earthquakes. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Multi-lateral Workshop on Development of Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Technologies and their Integration for the Asia-Pacific Region, Kobe, Japan, 2000.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

Last updated: 17 May 2019