Neuroanatomy and Histology of the Central Nervous System in Short Mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1851)


  • Sinlapachai SENARAT Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330
  • Wannee JIRAUNGKOORSKUL Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400
  • Jes KETTRATAD Center of Excellence of Marine Biotechnology, Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330


Central nervous system, eye, histology, Rastrelliger brachysoma, Thailand


A detailed anatomy and histological structure of the brain and spinal cord, referring to the central nervous system and special sensory organ, in the short mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma, were observed in this study. All specimens revealed that the brain nomenclature in R. brachysoma anatomically consisted of the telencephalon, mesencephalon, diencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalon, continued by the spinal cord. Different structures and cell components were observed due to histology and histochemistry studies. The telencephalon of R. brachysoma was less developed, mainly consisting of olfactory lobes and cerebral hemispheres. The largest part, the optic lobe, in the mesencephalon, was observed to have 6 histologically distinct layers; the stratum marginale, stratum opticum, stratum fibroetgricialem, stratum album central, stratum griseum central, and stratum periventriculae, respectively. The diencephalon was situated beneath mesencephalon. The epithalamus, thalamus and hypothalamus were easily observable in this region. The cerebellum in the metencephalon was composed of the corpus and the valvula cerebelli. The last region of the brain was the myelencephalon, which held the medulla oblongata and vagal lobes, before joining the spinal cord. The eye structure, composed of the inner, middle, and external layers, was investigated.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Sinlapachai SENARAT, Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330

Department of Pathobiology


T Shiraishi, K Ohta, A Yamaguchi, M Yoda, H Chuda and M Matsuyama. Reproductive parameters of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus estimated from human chorionic gonadotropin induced final oocyte maturation and ovulation in captivity. Fish. Sci. 2005; 71, 531-42.

Y Zohar and CC Mylonas. Endocrine manipulations of spawning in cultured fish: From hormones to genes. Aquaculture 2001; 197, 99-136.

Y Zohar, JA Muñoz-Cueto, A Elizur and O Kah. Neuroendocrinology of reproduction in teleost fish. Gen. Com. Endocr. 2001; 165, 438-55.

FAO. Report: Workshop on the Fishery and Management of Short Mackerel (Rastrelliger spp.) on the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy, 1999.

JM Wilson, RM Bunte and AJ Carty. Evaluation of rapid cooling and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) as methods of euthanasia in zebrafish (Danio rerio). J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci. 2009; 48, 785-9.

DR Dietrich and HO Krieger. Histological Analysis of Endocrine Disruptive Effects in Small Laboratory Fish. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, USA, 2009.

JD Bancroft and M Gamble. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 6th ed. Churchill Livingstone, UK, 2007.

GL Humason. Animal Tissue Techniques, 4th ed. WH Freeman & Co, San Francisco, USA, 1979.

F Genten, E Terwinghe and A Danguy. Atlas of Fish Histology. Science Publishers, Enfield, USA, 2008.

DB Groman. Histology of the Striped Bass. Bathesda, Maryland, USA, 1982.

AB Butler. Nervous System. In: GK Ostrander (ed.). The Laboratory Fish. Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 2000, p. 129-45.

RG Northcutt. Localization of neurons afferent to the telecephalon in a primitive fish, Polyterus palmas. Neurosci. Lett. 1981; 22, 219-22.

W Harder. Anatomy of Fishes. Stuttgart, West Germany, 1975.

JR Roberts. Fish Pathology. 4th ed. Bailliere Tindall, London, UK, 2000.

M Sattari, D Shahsouni, N Shabanipour and S Shafiee. Ichthyology Anatomy and Physiology. Haghshenas Publisher, Tehran, Iran, 2002, p. 247-59.

S Turkmen, S Mumford, J Heidel, C Smith, J Morrison and B Mac-Connell. Fish Histology and Histopathology. USFWS-NCTC, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, USA, 2007.

S Savari, S Sharareh, S Alireza, A Bita, S Ahmad and A Rahim. Brain anatomy and histology of orange apotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). J. Persian Gulf (Marine Science) 2013; 14, 1-13.

SS Khanna and HR Singh. Histology and histochemistry of the saccus vasculosus in some teleosts (Pisces). Acta Anatomica 1967; 67, 304-11.

AB Butler. Brain and Nervous system, Functional Morphology of the Brains of Ray- Finned Fishes. Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology, From Genome to Environment, Academic Press, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA, 2011.

KF Lagler, JE Bardach, RR Miller and DRM Passino. Ichthyology. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1977.

F Germain, C Pérez-Rico, J Vicente and P de la Villa. Functional Histology of the Retina. In: A Méndez-Vilas and J Díaz (eds.). Microscopy: Science, Technology, Applications and Education, 2010, p. 914-25.

A Sattari, M Asli, FA Mansoori, R Kheirandish and H Yavari. Histological study of middle layer of rabbit fish eye (Siganus javus). Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2012; 52, 1086-9.




How to Cite

SENARAT, S., JIRAUNGKOORSKUL, W., & KETTRATAD, J. (2015). Neuroanatomy and Histology of the Central Nervous System in Short Mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1851). Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 13(7), 531–541. Retrieved from



Research Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)