Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Moringa oleifera on Growth Performance and Potential Role in Muscle Proteins in Fish Puntius altus


  • Sunisa SIRIMONGKOLVORAKUL Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530
  • Wannee JIRAUNGKOORSKUL Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400
  • Piya KOSAI Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400
  • Tasanee INWISAI Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400


Moringa oleifera, supplement, fish, muscle, growth


The growth in fish farming has meant an increase in attention in terms of improving the quantity and quality of the fish. The aim of the present study is to evaluate Moringa oleifera as a nutritional supplement to fish, as it has demonstrated multiple biological activities. To test the beneficial effects of M. oleifera in fish diets, juvenile fish were separated into duplicate groups with test diets containing 0, 20 and 60 mg of M. oleifera leaf powder per g of fish food, respectively, for 28 days. The results were a significantly increased average body weight value (p < 0.05) in fish fed with a diet containing M. oleifera. The normal muscle cellularity correlated with an increase in the growth rate was detected in the group of fish fed with M. oleifera diets. Interestingly, a slight number of small muscle fibers showing strong reaction in the perimysium area were detected in fish fed with a diet containing M. oleifera, suggesting newly growing muscle fibers. Moreover, fish fed a diet containing M. oleifera leaves showed protein bands at 97 kDa, similar to those fed on M. oleifera leaf extract alone. These findings indicate that dietary supplementation with M. oleifera leaves results in significantly improved growth performance and an increase in muscle protein profile, without adverse effect to fish health. This could potentially help improve the quality of fish, as well as increase aquaculture yield.



Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2009) FISHSTAT Plus. Universal software for fishery statistical time series, Available at: http://www.fao.org/fi/statist/ FISOFT/FISH PLUS.asp, accessed August 2014.

G Francis, PS Makkar and K Becker. Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture 2001; 199, 197-227.

AJ Jackson, BS Capper and AJ Matty. Evaluation of some plant proteins in complete diets for tilapia, Sarotherodn mossambicus. Aquaculture 1982; 27, 97-109.

SOE Sadiku and K Jauncey. Soybean flour-poultry meat meal blends as dietary protein source in practical diets of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus. Asian Fish Sci. 1995; 8, 159-68.

AFM El-Sayed. Long term evaluation of cotton seed meal as a protein source for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture 1990; 84, 315-20.

H Makkar and K Becker. Nutritional value and antinutritional components of whole and ethanol extracted Moringa oleifera leaves. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 1996; 63, 211-28.

DI Sánchez-Machado, J López-Cervantes and NJR Vázquez. High-performance liquid chromatography method to measure α- and γ-tocopherol in leaves, flowers and fresh beans from Moringa oleifera. J. Chromatogr. A 2006; 1105, 111-4.

WOK Grabow, JL Slabert, WSG Morgan, SAA Jahn. Toxicity and mutagenicity evaluation of water coagulated with Moringa oleifera seeds preparations using fish, protozoan, bacterial, enzyme and Ames Salmonella assays. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 1985; 76, 319-21.

N Foidl, HPS Makkar and K Becker. The Potential of Moringa Oleifera for Agricultural and Industrial Uses. In: LJ Fuglie (ed.). The Miracle Tree: The Multiple Attributes of Moringa. Wageningen, Netherlands, 2001, p. 45-76.

P Ferreira, D Farias, J Oliveira and A Carvalho. Moringa oleifera: Bioactive compounds and nutritional potential. Revista de Nutrição 2008; 21, 431-7.

L Manh, N Dung and T Ngoi. Introduction and evaluation of Moringa oleifera for biomass production and as feed for goats in the Mekong Delta. Livestock Research for Rural Development 17, Available at: http://www.lrrd.org/ lrrd17/9/manh17104.htm, accessed August 2014.

SH Ben and HPS Makkar. Defatted Moringa oleifera seed meal as a feed additive for sheep. Anim Feed Sci Tech. 2009; 150, 27-33.

A Elangovan and KF Shim. The influence of replacing fish meal partially in the diet with soybean meal on growth and body composition of juvenile tin foil barb (Barbodes altus). Aquaculture 2000; 189, 133-44.

FE Dierberg and W Kiattisimkul. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Environ. Manag. 1996; 20, 649-66.

S Sirimongkolvorakul, W Jiraungkoorskul, T Tansatit, N Preyavichyapugdee, P Kosai and K Uakulwarawat. Influence of Moringa oleifera on histopathological changes due to lead-toxicity in red-tail tinfoil barb, Puntius altus. Fresenius Environ. Bull. 2013; 22, 1946-50.

GT Gurr. Biological Staining Method. 7th ed. George T. Gurr Ltd., London, 1963, p. 1-166.

UK Laemmli. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 1970; 227, 680-5.

AGJ Tacon. Feed ingredients for warm water fish: Fish meal and other processed feedstuffs. FAO Fisheries Circular No.856. FAO, Rome, 1993, p. 1-64.

B Ruyter, C Moya-Falcón, G Rosenlund and A Vegusdal. Fat content and morphology of liver and intestine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Effects of temperature and dietary soybean oil. Aquaculture 2006; 252, 441-52.

RE Burke, DN Levine, FE Zajac, P Tsairis and WK Engel. Mammalian motor units: physiological- histochemical correlation in three types in cat gastrocnemius. Science 1971; 174, 709-12.

J Lannergreen and JFK Hoh. Myosin isoenzymes in single muscle fibres of Xenopus laevis: Analysis of five different functional types. Proc. Biol. Sci. 1984; 222, 401-8.

N Chayen, A Freundlich and JM Squire. Comparative histochemistry of a flatfish fin muscle and of other vertebrate muscles used for ultrastructural studies. J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 1987; 4, 358-71.

Q Bone. On the function of the two types of myotomal muscle fibres in elasmobranch fish. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 1966; 46, 321-49.

MT Thebaulta, L Izemb, JP Leroyc, E Gobinc, G Charriera and GP Raffin. AMP-deaminase in elasmobranch fish: A comparative histochemical and enzymatic study. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 2005; 141, 472-9.

AH Weatherley, HS Gill and AF Lobo. Recruitment and maximal diameter of axial muscle fibres in teleost and their relationship to somatic growth and ultimate size. J. Fish Biol. 1988; 33, 851-9.

AH Weatherley and HS Gill. The biology of Fish Growth. Academic Press, London, 1987, p. 1-443.

IM Herman. Actin isoforms. Curr. Opi. Cell Biol. 1993; 5, 48-55.




How to Cite

SIRIMONGKOLVORAKUL, S., JIRAUNGKOORSKUL, W., KOSAI, P., & INWISAI, T. (2015). Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Moringa oleifera on Growth Performance and Potential Role in Muscle Proteins in Fish Puntius altus. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 12(6), 565–571. Retrieved from https://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/1357