Direct Somatic Embryo Formation from Roots of In Vitro-Seedlings of Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineesis Jacq.)
Keywords:Oil palm, somatic embryogenesis, in vitro-seedling, proembryonic mass (PEM), root
AbstractThe induction of somatic embryos (SEs) directly from the roots of oil palm plantlets raised in vitro-seedling and origin of somatic embryos. SEs were directly induced from the roots of oil palm plantlets regenerated from immature oil palm fruit (3 months after pollination: 3MAP) and provided by Golden Tenera Company. The plants were cultured on OPCM medium supplemented with 3 % sucrose, 200 mg/l ascorbic acid and 0.5 mg/l NAA. The culture was maintained under light conditions at an intensity of 15 µmol/m2/s, 14 h photoperiod, 28±1 °C for 2 months. Histological studies revealed that SEs were initiated from epidermal cells and a few parenchymatous cells. Parenchyma cells had a large nucleus, dense cytoplasm with a broad basal area in contact with maternal tissue. Those cells underwent rapid cell division to form proembryonic mass (PEM) and finally developed into SEs through somatic embryogenesis (SE). The highest number of SEs was 1.2 SEs/root and the percentage of SE formation was recorded to be 80. The present study confirms direct SE formation from roots and describes the origin of SE.
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