Effect of Forchlorfenuron on Somatic Embryo Proliferation and Plantlet Regeneration in Oil Palm SUP-PSU1


  • Waraporn HEEDCHIM Agricultural Innovation and Management Division, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112, Thailand https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2976-3541
  • Sompong TE-CHATO Agricultural Innovation and Management Division, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112, Thailand
  • Sureerat YENCHON Center of Excellence on Agricultural Biotechnology (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE), Bangkok 10900, Thailand




Oil palm SUP-PSU1, N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea (CPPU), Somatic embryo, Plantlet regeneration


In vitro propagation of palm oil is still an obstacle for mass propagation due to the low plant regeneration frequency. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea (CPPU) on a somatic embryo (SE) proliferation and plant regeneration of oil palm SUP-PSU1. At an approximate size of 5 mm, SE from chopping with a sharp razor blade at 100 times was cultured on oil palm culture medium (OPCM) with 0.1 mg/L dicamba and different concentrations CPPU. The results showed that 0.3 mg/L CPPU gave the highest SE proliferation at 100 % and the number of SEs at 5.16 embryos/tube after 4 weeks of culture. SE was transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.2M sorbitol, a secondary somatic embryo (SSE), which was induced at 66.67 % with 21.2 embryos/tube after 8 weeks. Furthermore, cultured SSE on PGR-free MS medium for 8 weeks gave the highest germination rate at 65 %, with the number of shoots at 2.29 shoots. Thus, this study provides new information for improving the plantlet regeneration system through somatic embryogenesis in oil palm.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


S Te-chato, T Susanon and Y Sontikun. Cultivar, explant type and culture medium influencing embryogenesis and organogenesis in Anthurium spp. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Tech. 2006; 28, 717-22.

J Srithongkun. Artificial seed. Tech. Promot. Assoc. 2009; 36, 56-60.

SV Arnold, I Sabala, P Bozhkov, J Dyachok and L Filonova. Developmental pathways of somatic embryogenesis. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Cul. 2002; 69, 233-49.

H Sobri, I Rusli, LPK Anna, NM Fadzillah and SK Daud. Micropropagation of Eurycoma longifolia via formation of somatic embryogenesis. Asian J. Plant Sci. 2005; 4, 472-85.

M Jayanthi, B Susanthi, NM Mohan and PK Mandal. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from immature male inflorescence of adult dura and tenera palms of Elaeis guineensis (Jacq.) Springer Plus. 2015; 4, 1-7.

S Te-chato, A Hilae and I Yeedum. Induction of embryogenic callus and plant regeneration from young leaves of high yielding mature oil palm. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Tech. 2004; 26, 617-28.

JB Teixeira, MR Sondahl and EG Kirby. Somatic embryogenesis from immature inflorescences of oil palm. Plant Cell Rep. 1994; 13, 247-250.

KC Wooi. Oil Palm Tissue Culture: Current Practice and Constraints. In: V Rao, IE Henson and N Rajanaidu (Eds.). Recent Developments in Oil Palm Tissue Culture and Biotechnology, Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Bangi, 1995, p. 56-7.

A Carra, FD Pasquale, A Ricci and F Carimi. Diphenylurea derivatives induce somatic embryogenesis in citrus. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cul. 2006; 87, 41-8.

S Fiore, FD Pasquale, F Carimi and M Sajeva. Effect of 2,4-D and 4-CPPU on somatic embryogenesis from stigma and style transverse thin cell layers of citrus. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cul. 2002; 68, 57-63.

N Matsuta and T Hirabayashi. Embryogenic cell lines from somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). Plant Cell Rep. 1989; 7, 684-7.

BNS Murthy and PK Saxena. Somatic embryogenesis in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.): Stimulation of direct differentiation of somatic embryos by forchlorfenuron (CPPU). Plant Cell Rep. 1994; 14, 145-50.

MS Pádua, RS Santos, CRG Labory, VC Stein, EC Mendonça, E Alves and LV Paiva. Histodifferentiation of oil palm somatic embryo development at low auxin concentration. Protoplasma 2018; 255, 285-95.

A Feher, TP Pasternak and D Duditis. Transition of somatic plant cell to an embryogenic state. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cul. 2003; 74, 201-28.

C Sittisak, T Khawniam and S Te-chato. Effects of chopping and culture conditions on somatic embryo proliferation of oil palm SUP-PSU. Songklanakarin J. Plant Sci. 2017; 4, 41-6.

SS Karup, MAM Aly, G Lekshmi and NH Tawfik. Rapid in vitro regeneration of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Kheneizi using tender leaf explant. Emirate J. Food Agr. 2014; 26, 539-44.

M Aalifar, M Arab, S Aliniaeifard, S Dianati, MZ Mehrjerdi, E Limpens and M Serek. Embryogenesis efficiency and genetic stability of Dianthus caryophyllus embryos in response to different light spectra and plant growth regulators. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cul. 2019; 139, 479-92.

T Boonklam, P Seekhan, P Phengchang, T Hawananda and P Saradhuldhat. Effect of GA3, NAA and CPPU on fruit size and quality in dragon fruit ‘Daeng Siam’. Khon Kaen Agr. J. 2016; 44, 887-91.

S Sanputawong, S Te-chato and S Benchasri. Effects of activated charcoal and liquid culture media on germination and plant regeneration from secondary somatic embryo of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Khon Kaen Agr. J. 2014; 42, 456-61.

T Promchan, S Sanputawong and S Te-chato. Effect of sizes of haustorium embryo on secondary somatic embryo formation and histological study in oil palm. J. Agr. Tech. 2012; 8, 671-9.

MT Martı´nez, AM Vieitez and E Corredoira. Improved secondary embryo production in Quercus alba and Q. rubra by activated charcoal, silver thiosulphate and sucrose: Influence of embryogenic explant used for subculture. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cul. 2015; 121, 531-46.

A Hilae. 2008, Enhanced germination efficiency of somatic embryos from young leaf culture of oil palm ortet. Ph.D. Dissertation. Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.




How to Cite

HEEDCHIM, W. ., TE-CHATO, S. ., & YENCHON, S. . (2021). Effect of Forchlorfenuron on Somatic Embryo Proliferation and Plantlet Regeneration in Oil Palm SUP-PSU1. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 18(5), Article 11048 (9 pages). https://doi.org/10.48048/wjst.2021.11048