Water Swollen Natural Rubber



Modification of natural rubber by grafting of maleic anhydride yielded a water absorbable substrate. It was found that water contact angles of treated samples declined as the concentrations of maleic anhydride increased reflecting higher water compatibility in grafted samples. Submergence in water of these samples caused dramatic swelling with the water content up to about 60 wt %.


Modified natural rubber, hydrophilicity, water absorption

Full Text:



Examples of the products made of natural rubber composites are showed in the following patents. Method and apparatus for treatment of snoring, hypopnea and apnea, United States Patent: 4,761,925 August, 9, 1998. Polymer composition imparting low surface energy, United States Patent: 5,110,667 May, 5, 1992. Reciprocating gas valve for pulsing a gas, United States Patent: 6,818,094 November, 16, 2004. Anti-seismic rubber bearing, United States Patent: 4,761,925 August, 9, 1988. Available at:

SearchSimple.aspx, accessed June 2008.

AF Halasa, JM Massieand and RJ Ceresa. Science and Technology of Rubber. In: Eirich FR (ed.). Academic Press, New York, 1978, p. 513-41.

H Ismail, A Rusli and AA Rashid. Maleated natural rubber as a coupling agent for paper sludge filled natural rubber composites. Polym. Test. 2005; 24, 856-62.

C Nakason, S Saiwaree, S Tatun and A Kaesaman. Rheological, thermal and morphological properties of maleated natural rubber and its reactive blending with poly(methyl methacrylate). Polym. Test. 2006; 25, 656-67.

C Nakason, A Kaesaman and P Supasanthitikul. The grafting of maleic anhydride onto natural rubber. Polym. Test. 2004; 23, 35-41.

C Nakason, A Kaesaman, Z Samoh, S Homsin and S Kiatkamjornwong. Rheological properties of maleated natural rubber and natural rubber blends. Polym. Test. 2002; 21, 449-55.

C Nakason, A Kaesaman, S Homsin and S Kiatkamjornwong. Rheological and curing behavior of reactive blending. I. maleated natural rubber-cassava starch. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2001; 81, 2803-13.

E Carone Jr, U Kopcak, MC Goncalves and SP Nunes. In situ compatibilization of polyamide 6/natural rubber blends with maleic anhydride. Polymer 2000; 41, 5929-35.

Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Wikipedia Encyclopedia: Hydrogels, Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gel, accessed April 2008.

M/S Nichi-In Bio Sciences Co., Ltd. Sky-gel for agriculture use, Available at: http://nichiin.com/skygel/index.htm, accessed April 2008.

The Hindu Republication. Hydrogel to promote plant growth, Available at: http://www.hinduonnet.com/seta/2003/04/10/stories/2003041000200300.htm, accessed April 2008.

CNET Networks, Inc. When to use hydrogel dressing, Available at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199909/ai_n8855996, accessed April 2008.

D Hou, X Tong, H Yu, A Zhang and Z Feng. A kind of biodegradable hydrogel made from copolymerization of gelatin with polypseudorotaxanes based on alpha-CDs. Biomed. Mater. 2007; 2, 147-52.

S Khongtong and GS Ferguson. The integration of bulk and interfacial properties in a polymeric system: elasticity at a polybutadiene/water interfaces. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001; 123, 3588-94.

S Khongtong and GS Ferguson. The integration of bulk and interfacial properties in a polymeric system 2: elasticity at a polyisoprene/water interfaces. Macromolecules 2002; 35, 4023-29.

DH Carey and GS Ferguson. Synthesis and characterization of surface-functionalized 1,2-polybutadiene bearing hydroxyl or carboxylic acid groups. Macromolecules 1994; 27, 7254-64.

GM Whitesides and GS Ferguson. Organic chemistry in two dimensions: surface-functionalized polymers and self-assembled monolayer films. Chemtracts 1988; 1 171-3.

W Li, F Xue and R Cheng. States of water in partially swollen poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels. Polymer 2005; 46, 12026-31.

J Saelao and P Phinyocheep. Influence of styrene on grafting efficiency of maleic anhydride onto natural rubber. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2004; 95, 28-38.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 2228-835X


Last updated: 20 June 2019