Impact of Global Warming on Coral Reefs

Sirilak CHUMKIEW, Mullica JAROENSUTASINEE, Krisanadej JAROENSUTASINEE

Abstract


In this paper, we review coral reef responses to climate variability and discuss the possible mechanisms by which climate impacts the coral reef ecosystem. Effects of oceanographic variables such as sea temperature, turbulence, salinity, and nutrients on the coral reef are discussed in terms of their influence on coral growth, reproduction, mortality, acclimation and adaptation. Organisms tend to be limited to specific thermal ranges with experimental findings showing that sufficient oxygen supply by ventilation and circulation only occurs within these ranges. Indirect effects of climate change on the food web are also discussed. Further integrative studies are required to improve our knowledge of the processes linking coral reef responses to future climate change scenarios.


Graphical abstract

http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/mapcoralbleaching1979-2010_ed1_640


► Incidence of coral reef bleaching on a worldwide scale: location of bleaching reports during 1979 - 2010. Maps are from ReefBase, www.reefbase.org: 1, Arabian Gulf (United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Iran); 2, Red Sea; 3, east Africa; 4, southern Africa (Mozambique, South Africa); 5, Madagascar; 6, Mauritius, Reunion; 7, Seychelles; 8, Chagos; 9, Maldives; 10, Sri Lanka/southern India; 11, Andaman Sea (Andamans, Thailand, Malaysia); 12, South China Sea (Vietnam, Paracel Islands); 13, Philippines; 14, Indonesia; 15, western Australia; 16, Great Barrier Reef; 17, Ryukyu Islands; 18, Mariana Islands; 19, Palau; 20, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu; 21, Fiji; 22, Samoa; 23, French Polynesia (including Moorea); 24, Hawaiian Islands; 25, Easter Island; 26, Galapagos Islands; 27, equatorial eastern Pacific (Costa Rica, Cocos Island, Panama´, Colombia, Ecuador); 28, subtropical eastern Pacific (Mexico); 29, Mesoamerican reef system (Mexico, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua); 30, Greater Antilles (Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands); 31, Bahamas, Florida; 32, Bermuda; 33, Lesser Antilles; 34, Curaçao, Aruba, Bonaire, Los Roques; 35, Brazil.


Keywords


Coral reef, climate change, sea temperature, coral bleaching

Full Text:

PDF

References


MJC Crabbe. Challenges for sustainability in cultures where regard for the future may not be present. Sustainability: Sci. Pract. Policy 2006; 2, 57-61.

M James and C Crabbe. Climate change, global warming and coral reefs: Modelling the effects of temperature. Comput. Biol. Chem. 2008; 32, 311-4.

MP Lesser. Experimental biology of coral reef ecosystems. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 2004; 300, 217-52.

MJC Crabbe. Climate change and coral reefs. Biologist 2007; 54, 24-7.

HT Yap, ARF Montebon, JA von Oertzen and RM Dizon. Experimental manipulations of a solitary coral (Fungia, Scleractinia) with emphasis on the effects of light. B. Mar. Sci. 1995; 56, 319-29.

HT Yap and RA Molina. Comparison of coral growth and survival under enclosed, semi-natural conditions and in the field. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2003; 46, 858-64.

AJ Edwards, S Clark, H Zahir, A Rajauriya, A Naseer and J Rubens. Coral bleaching and mortality on artificial and natural reefs in Maldives in 1998, sea surface temperature anomalies and initial recovery. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2001; 42, 7-15.

ARF Montebon and HT Yap. Metabolic responses of the scleractinian coral Porites cylindrica Dana to water motion. I. Oxygen flux studies. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 1995; 186, 33-52.

CS Rogers. Responses of coral reefs and reef organisms to sedimentation. Mar. Ecol-Prog. Ser. 1990; 62, 185-202.

RW Grigg. Paleoceanography of coral reefs in the Hawaiian-emperor chain-revisited. Coral Reefs 1997; 16, S33-8.

TP Scoffin, AW Tudhope, BE Brown, H Chansang and RF Cheeney. Patterns and possible environmental controls of skeletogenesis of Porites lutea, South Thailand. Coral Reefs 1992; 11, 1-11.

JM Lough, DJ Barnes. Environmental controls on growth of the massive coral Porites. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. 2000; 245, 225-43.

O Hoegh-Guldberg. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs. Mar. Freshwater Res. 1999; 50, 867-78.

CR Wilkinson. Global and local threats to reef functioning and existence: reviews and predictions. Mar. Freshwater Res. 1999; 50, 838-66.

MH Schleyer, A Kruger and L Celliers. Long-term community changes on a high-latitude coral reef in the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park, South Africa. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2008; 56, 493-502.

PW Glynn. Coral reef bleaching in the 1980s and possible connections with global warming. Trends Ecol. Evol. 1991; 6, 175-9.

PW Glynn. Coral reef bleaching; facts, hypotheses and implications. Global Change Biol. 1996; 2, 495-509.

TJ Goreau and RL Hayes. Coral bleaching and ocean hot-spots. Ambio. 1994; 23, 176-80.

BE Brown. Coral bleaching: causes and consequences. Coral Reefs 1997; 16, S129-38.

C Wilkinson, O Linden, H Cesar, G Hodgson, J Rubens and AE Strong. Ecological and socioeconomic impacts of 1998 coral mortality in the Indian Ocean; an ENSO impact and a warning of future change? Ambio. 1999; 28 188-96.

TJ Goreau, TR McClanahan, RL Hayes and A Strong. Conservation of coral reefs after the 1998 global bleaching event. Conserv. Biol. 2000; 14, 5-15.

CRC Sheppard, M Spalding, C Bradshaw and S Wilson. Erosion vs. recovery of coral reefs after 1998 El Niño: Chagos reefs, Indian Ocean. Ambio. 2002; 31, 40-8.

TR McClanahan, AH Baird, PA Marshall and MA Toscano. Comparing bleaching and mortality responses of hard corals between southern Kenya and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2004; 48, 327-35.

AC Baker, PW Glynn and B Riegl. Climate change and coral reef bleaching: an ecological assessment of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook. Estuar. Coast. Shelf. 2008; 80, 435-71.

L Reeves. Newly discovered: yellow band disease strikes keys reefs. Underwater USA. 1994; 11, 16.

B Riegl. Corals in a non-reef setting in the southern Arabian Gulf (Dubai, UAE): fauna and community structure in response to recurrent mass mortality. Coral Reefs 1999; 18, 63-73.

B Riegl. Effects of the 1996 and 1998 positive sea-surface temperature anomalies on corals, coral diseases and fish in the Arabian Gulf (Dubai, UAE). Mar. Biol. 2002; 140, 29-40.

SL Coles, PL Jokiel and CR Lewis. Thermal tolerance in tropical versus subtropical Pacific reef corals. Pac. Sci. 1976; 30, 159-66.

TP Hughes, AH Baird, DR Bellwood, M Card, SR Connolly, C Folke, R Grosberg, O Hoegh-Guldberg, JBC Jackson, J Kleypas, JM Lough, P Marshall, M Nyström, SR Palumbi, JM Pandolfi, B Rosen and J Roughgarden. Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science 2003; 301, 929-33.

PJ Moran. The Acanthaster phenomenon. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 1986; 24, 379-480.

JJ Sofonia and KRN Anthony. High-sediment tolerance in the reef coral Turbinaria mesenterina from the inner Great Barrier Reef lagoon (Australia). Estuar. Coast. Shelf. S. 2008; 78, 748-52.

LL Richardson. Black Band Disease. In: E Rosenberg and Y Loya (eds.), Coral Health and Disease. Springer-Verlag, 2004, p. 325-36.

NOAA Reports Record-breaking coral bleaching occurred in tropics this year, Available at: http://www.publicaffairs.noaa. gov/stories/sir22.html, accessed January 2011.

ISRS. Statement on Global Coral Bleaching in 1997-1998. Available at: http://www. coralreefs.org/documents/ISRS%20Statement%202%20-%20Coral%20Bleaching%20in %201997-98.pdf, accessed January 2011.

SL Coles and PL Jokiel. Synergistic effects of temperature, salinity and light on the hermatypic coral Montipora verrucosa. Mar. Biol. 1978; 187-95.

O Hoegh-Guldberg and GJ Smith. The effects of sudden changes in temperature, light and salinity on the population density and export of zooxanthellae from the reef corals Stylophora pistillata Esper and Seriatopora hystrix Dana. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 1989; 129, 279-303.

PW Glynn and L D’Croz. Experimental evidence for high temperature stress as the cause of El Niño-coincident coral mortality. Coral Reefs 1990; 8, 181-91.

MP Lesser, WR Stochaj, DW Tapley and JM Shick. Bleaching in coral reef anthozoans effects of irradiance, ultraviolet radiation, and temperature on the activities of protective enzymes against active oxygen. Coral Reefs 1990; 8, 225-32.

RA Kerr. Big El Niños ride the back of slower climate change. Science 1999; 283, 1108.

The Coral-List Archives, Available at: http://coral.aoml.noaa.gov/pipermail/coral-list, accessed January 2011.

Climate Prediction Center/NCEP, Available at: http://www.cpc.noaa.gov/products/ analysis_monitoring/lanina/enso_evolution-status-fcsts-web.pdf, accessed January 2011.

JP McWilliams, IM Côté, JA Gill, WJ Sutherland and AR Watkinson. Accelerating impacts of temperature-induced coral bleaching in the Caribbean. Ecology 2005; 86, 2055-60.

CHAMPNetwork. Coral Health and Monitoring Program Network, Available at: http://www.coral.noaa.gov, accessed January 2011.

El Niño climate pattern forms in Pacific Ocean, Available at: http://www.usatoday. com/weather/climate/2006-09-13-el-nino_x. html, accessed January 2011.

USA Today, Available at: http://www. cbsnews.com/stories/2007/02/28/tech/main2523483.shtml, accessed January 2011.

PJ Ramsay. Quaternary marine geology of the Sodwana Bay continental shelf, northern KwaZulu-Natal. Geol. Survey South Africa 1996; 117, 1-86.

G Zorpette. More coral trouble. Sci. Am. 1995; 273, 37-8.

Y Benayahu. Corals of the south-west Indian Ocean I: Alcyonacea from Sodwana Bay, South Africa. South African Assoc. Mar. Biol. Res. Invest. Report 1993; 67, 1-16.

Y Benayahu and MH Schleyer. Corals of the south-west Indian Ocean II: Eleutherobia aurea spec. nov. (Cnidaria, Alcyonacea) from deep reefs on the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa. Oceanogr. Res. Inst. Invest. Report 1995; 68, 1-12.

JL Martinez and F Baquero. Interactions among strategies associated with bacterial infection, pathogeniticity, epidemiocity, and antibiotic resistance. Microbiol. Rev. 2002; 15, 647-79.

E Rosenberg and Y Ben-Haim. Microbial diseases of corals and global warming. Environ. Microbiol. 2002; 4, 318-26.

Y Ben-Haim, FL Thompson, CC Thompson, MC Cnockaert, B Hoste, J Swings and E Rosenberg. Vibrio coralliilyticus sp nov., a temperature-dependent pathogen of the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Micr. 2003; 53, 309-15.

LL Richardson. Coral diseases: what is really known. Trends Ecol. Evol. 1998; 13, 438-43.

CD Harvell, CE Mitchell, JR Ward, S Altzier, AP Dobson, RS Ostfield and MD Samuel. Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 2002; 296, 2158-62.

M Shulman and DR Robertson. Changes in the coral reefs of San Blas, Caribbean Panama: 1983-1990. Coral Reefs 1996; 15, 231-6.

TJ Goreau. Bleaching and reef community change in Jamaica: 1951-1991. Am. Zool. 1992; 32, 683-95.

PJ Edmunds. Extent and effect of black band disease on a Caribbean reef. Coral Reefs 1991; 10, 161-5.

TP Hughes, DC Reed and MJ Boyle Herbivory on coral reefs: community structure following mass mortalities of sea urchins. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 1987; 113, 39-59.

O Hoegh-Guldberg and JS Pearse. Temperature, food availability and the development of marine invertebrate larvae. Am. Zool. 1995; 35, 415-25.

R Berkelmans, G Déath, S Kinnimonth and WJ Skirving. A comparison of the 1998 and 2002 coral bleaching events on the Great Barrier Reef: spatial correlation, patterns, and predictions. Coral Reefs 2004; 23, 74-83.

DP Manzello, R Berkelmans and JC Hendee. Coral bleaching indices and thresholds for the Florida reef tract, Bahamas, and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2007a; 54, 1923-31.

WB Gladfelter. White-band disease in Acropora palmate-implications for the structure and growth of shallow reefs. Bull. Mar. Sci. 1982; 32, 639-43.

CM Finelli, BST Helmuth, ND Pentcheff and DS Wethey. Water flow influences oxygen transport and photosynthetic efficiency in corals. Coral Reefs 2006; 25, 47-57.

KB Ritchie and GW Smith. Preferential carbon utilization by surface bacterial communities from water mass, normal, and white band disease Acropora cervicornis. Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 1995; 4, 345-52.

KB Ritchie, SW Polson and GW Smith. Microbial disease causation in marine invertebrates: problems, practices, and future prospects. Hydrobiologia 2001; 460, 131-9.

AM Szmant and NJ Gassman. The effects of prolonged ‘bleaching, on the tissue biomass and reproduction of the reef coral Montastrea annularis. Coral Reefs 1990; 8, 217-24.

KL Patterson, JW Porter, KB Ritchie, SW Polson, E Mueller, EC Peters, DL Santavy and GW Smith. The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the Caribbean coral, Acropora palmata. Ecology 2002; 99, 8725-30.

S Ward, R Jones, P Harrison and O Hoegh-Guldberg. Changes in the Reproduction, Lipids and MAAs of Corals following the GBR Mass Bleaching Event. In: S Ward (ed.). Abstract, Australian Coral Reef Society annual meeting in Port Douglas. University of Queensland Press, 1998, p. 10.

PW Glynn. Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives. Coral Reefs 1993; 12, 1-17.

EH Meesters and RPM Bak. Effects of coral bleaching on tissue regeneration potential and colony survival. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1993; 96, 189-98.

SL Coles and PL Jokiel. Effects of temperature on photosynthesis and respiration in hermatypic corals. Mar. Biol. 1977; 43, 209-16.

CR Wilkinson and RW Buddemeier. Global Climate Change and Coral Reefs: Implications for People and Reefs. In: Report of the UNEPIOC-ASPEI-IUCN Global Task Team on the Implications of Climate Change on Coral Reefs. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 1994, p. 124.

GR Steen and L Muscatine. Low temperature evokes rapid exocytosis of symbiotic algae by a sea anemone. Biol. Bull. 1987; 172, 246-63.

RD Gates, G Baghdasarain and L Muscatine. Temperature stress causes host cell detachment in symbiotic cnidarians: implications for coral bleaching. Biol. Bull. 1992; 182, 324-32.

WK Fitt, BE Brown, ME Warner and RP Dunne. Coral bleaching: interpretation of thermal tolerance limits and thermal thresholds in tropical corals. Coral Reefs 2001; 20, 51-65.

RJ Jones, J Bowyer, O Hoegh-Guldberg and LL Blackall. Dynamics of a temperature-related coral disease outbreak. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 2004; 218, 63-77.

KE Fabricius, JC Mieog, PL Colin, D Idip and MJH Van Oppen. Identity and diversity of coral endosymbionts (zooxanthellae) from three Palauan reefs with contrasting bleaching, temperature and shading histories. Mol. Ecol. 2004; 13, 2445-58.

P Hallock. Coral Reefs, Carbonate Sediment, Nutrients, and Global Change. In: GD Stanley (ed.). Ancient Reef Ecosystems: their Evolution, Paleoecology and Importance in Earth History. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 2001, p. 388-427.

K Koop, D Booth, A Broadbent, J Brodie, D Bucher, D Capone, D Coll, J Dennison, W Erdman, M Harrison, O Hoegh-Guldberg, P Hutchings, G Jones, AWD Larkum, J O’Neill, A Steven, T Tentori, S Ward, J Williamson and D Yellowlees. ENCORE: the effect of nutrient enrichment on coral reefs Synthesis of results and conclusions. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2001; 42, 91-120.

AE Douglas. Coral bleaching-how and why? Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2003; 46, 385-92.

MJA Vermeij and RPM. Bak. How are coral populations structured by light? Marine light regimes and the distribution of Madracis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 2002; 233, 105-16.

MP Lesser, VM Weis, MR Patterson and PL Jokiel. Effects of morphology and water motion on carbon delivery and productivity in the reef coral, Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus): diffusion barriers, inorganic carbon limitation, and biochemical plasticity. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 1994; 178, 153-79.

LW Smith and C Birkeland. Effect of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 2007; 314, 282-94.

F Rougerie, JA Fagerstrom and C Andrie. Geothermal endo-upwelling-a solution to the reef nutrient paradox. Cont. Shelf. Res. 1992; 12, 785-98.

AM Szmant. Nutrient enrichment on coral reefs: is it a major cause of coral reef decline? Estuaries 2002; 25, 743-66.

P Hallock. Global change and modern coral reefs: New opportunities to understand shallow-water carbonate depositional processes. Sediment Geol. 2005; 175, 19-33.

MM Nugues and CM Roberts. Partial mortality in massive reef corals as an indicator of sediment stress on coral reefs. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2003; 46, 314-23.

TP Hughes. Catastrophes, phase shifts, and large-scale degradation of a Caribbean coral reef. Science 1994; 265, 1547-51.

T McClanahan, N Polunin and T Done. Ecological states and the resilience of coral reefs. Conserv. Ecol. 2002; 6, 18.

JB Elsner, TH Jagger and AA Tsonis, Estimated return period for Hurricane Katrina. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2006a, DOI: 10.1029/2006GLO25452.

JB Elsner, RJ Murnane and TH Jagger, Forecasting US hurricanes 6 months in advance. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2006b, DOI:10.1029/2006GL025693.

MP Lesser, JC Bythell, RD Gates, RW Johnstone and O Hoegh-Guldberg. Are infectious diseases really killing corals? Alternative interpretations of the experimental and ecological data. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 2007; 346, 36-44.

N Knowlton, JC Lang and MC Rooney. Evidence for delayedmortality in hurricane-damaged Jamaican staghorn corals. Nature 1981; 294, 251-2.

JH Connell. Disturbance and recovery of coral assemblages. Coral Reefs 1997; 16, 101-13.

JH Connell, TP Hughes and CC Wallace. A 30 year study of coral abundance, recruitment, and disturbance at several scales in space and time. Ecol. Monogr. 1997; 67, 461-88.

S Weinberg. A comparison of coral reef survey methods. Bijdr. Dierkd. 1981; 51, 199-218.

W Leujak and RFG Ormond. Comparative accuracy and efficiency of six coral community survey methods. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 2007; 351, 168-87.

N Beenaerts and EV Berghe. Comparative study of three transect methods to assess coral cover, richness and diversity. West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. 2005; 4, 29-37.

JH Carleton and TJ Done. Quantitative video sampling of coral reef benthos: large-scale application. Coral Reefs 1995; 14, 35-46.

HP Vogt, ARF Montebon and MLR Alcala. Underwater video sampling: an effective method for coral reef surveys?. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama. 1997, p. 1447-52.

U Schreiber, U Schliwa and W Bilger. Continuous recording of photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching with a new type of modulation fluorometer. Photosynth. Res. 1986; 10, 51-62.

M Gorbunov, PG Falkowski and Z Kolber. Measurement of photosynthetic parameters in benthic organisms in situ using a SCUBA-based fast repetition rate fluorometer. Limnol. Oceanogr. 2000; 45, 242-5.

J Silva, Y Sharon, R Santos and S Beer. Measuring seagrass photosynthesis: methods and applications. Aquat. Biol. 2009; 7, 127-41.

MP Lesser and MY Gorbunov. Diurnal and bathymetric changes in chlorophyll fluorescence yields of reef corals measured in situ with a fast repetition rate fluorometer. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 2001; 212, 69-77.

T Fujiki, T Suzue, H Kimoto and T Saino. Photosynthetic electron transport in Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae) measured by fast repetition rate fluorometry: relation to carbon assimilation. J. Plankton. Res. 2007; 29, 199-208.

TR McClanahan, M Atweberhan, C Ruiz Sebastian, NAJ Graham, S Wilson, JH Bruggemann and MMM Guillaume. Predictability of coral bleaching from synoptic satellite and in situ temperature observations. Coral Reefs 2007; 26, 695-701.

RN Rowan and DA Powers. A molecular genetic classification of zooxanthellae and the evolution of animal– algal symbioses. Science 1991; 251, 1348-51.

RN Rowan and DA Powers. Molecular genetic identification of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1991; 71, 65-73.

AC Baker and R Rowan. Diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) in scleractinian corals on the Caribbean and eastern Pacific. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama. 1997, p. 1301-6.

SR Santos, DJ Taylor, III Kinzie, M Hidaka, K Sakai and MA Coffroth. Molecular phylogeny of symbiotic dinoflagellates inferred from partial chloroplast large subunit (23S)-rDNA sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 2002; 23, 97-111.

TC LaJeunesse. Investigating biodiversity, ecology, and phylogeny of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium using the ITS region: in search of a ‘‘species’’ level marker. J. Phycol. 2001; 37, 866-80.

MH Schleyer, A Kruger and Y Benayahu. Reproduction and the unusual condition of hermaphroditism in Sarcophyton glaucum (Octocorallia, Alcyoniidae) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Hydrobiologia 2004; 530, 399-409.

Y Benayahu and MH Schleyer. Reproduction in Anthelia glauca (Octocorallia, Xeniidae) II: Transmission of algal symbionts during brooding of planulae. Mar. Biol. 1998; 131, 433-42.

A Kruger and MH Schleyer. Reproduction in Pocillopora verrucosa (Scleractinia, Pocilloporidae) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Mar. Biol. 1998; 132, 703-10.

A Kruger, MH Schleyer and Y Benayahu. Reproduction in Anthelia glauca (Octocorallia, Xeniidae) I: Gametogenesis and Coral breeding. Mar. Boil. 1998; 131, 423-32.

D Glassom, L Celliers and MH Schleyer. Coral recruitment patterns at Sodwana Bay, South Africa. Coral Reefs 2006; 25, 485-92.

MH Schleyer. Observations on the incidence of crown-of-thorns starfish in the Western Indian Ocean. Reef Encounter 1998; 23, 25-7.

L Celliers and MH Schleyer. Behaviour and character of an Acanthaster planci (L.) aggregation in a high-latitude coral community in South Africa. West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. 2006; 5, 105-13.

B Riegl. Effects of sand deposition on scleractinian and alcyonacean corals. Mar. Biol. 1995; 121, 517-26.

MH Schleyer and L Celliers. Coral dominance at the reef-sediment interface in marginal coral communities at Sodwana Bay, South Africa. Mar. Freshwater Res. 2003; 54, 967-72.

MH Schleyer and BJ Tomalin. Ecotourism and damage on South African coral reefs with an assessment of their carrying capacity. B. Mar. Sci. 2000; 67, 1025-42.

L Celliers and MH Schleyer. Coral bleaching on high latitude marginal reefs at Sodwana Bay, South Africa. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2002; 44, 180-7.

MH Schleyer, L Celliers. Biodiversity on the marginal coral reefs of South Africa: what does the future hold? Zoologische Verhandelingen 2003; 345, 387-400.

IF Akyildiz, D Pompili and T Melodia. Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges. AdHoc Networks 2005; 3, 257-79.

EP Green, PJ Mumby, AJ Edwards and CD Clark. A review of remote sensing for the assessment and management of tropical coastal resources. Coast. Manage. 1996; 24, 1-40.

JR Ware, DG Fautin and RW Buddemeier. Patterns of coral bleaching: modeling the adaptive bleaching hypothesis. Ecol. Model. 1996; 84, 199-214.

R Rowan, N Knowlton, A Baker and J Jara. Landscape ecology of algal symbionts creates variation in episodes of coral bleaching. Nature 1997; 388, 265-9.

AC Baker. Reef corals bleach to survive change. Nature 2001; 411, 765-6.

AC Baker, C Starger, TR McClanahan, and PW Glynn. Coral’s adaptive response to climate change. Shifting to new algal symbionts may safeguard devastated reefs from extinction. Nature 2004; 430, 741.

RW Buddemeier, AC Baker, DG Fautin and JR Jacobs. The Adaptive Hpothesis of Bleaching. In: E Rosenberg and Y Loya (eds.). Coral Health and Disease. Springer, Berlin and other cities, 2004, p. 427-44.

DG Fautin and RW Buddemeier. Adaptive bleaching: a general phenomenon. Hydrobiologia 2004; 530, 459-67.

R Rowan. Coral bleaching: thermal adaptation in reef coral symbionts. Nature 2004; 430, 742.

DO Obura. Reef corals bleach to resist stress. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2009; 58, 206-12.

Y Benayahu and MH Schleyer. Corals of the south-west Indian Ocean III: Alcyonacea (Octocorallia) from Bazaruto Island, Mozambique, with a redescription of Cladiella australis (Macfadyen 1936) and description of Cladiella kashmani spec. nov. Oceanogr. Res. Inst. Invest. Report 1996; 69, 1-21.

B Riegl. Description of four new species in the hard coral genus Acropora Oken, 1815 (Scleractinia: Astrocoeniina: Acroporidae) from south-east Africa. Zool. J. Linn. Soc.-Lond. 1995a; 113, 229-47.

B Riegl. A revision of the hard coral genus Acropora Oken, 1815 (Scleractinia: Astrocoeniina: Acroporidae) in south-east Africa. Zool. J. Linn. Soc.-Lond. 1995b; 113, 249-88.

B Riegl. Corals of the south-west Indian Ocean IV: The hard coral family Faviidae Gregory, 1900 (Scleractinia: Faviina). Assoc. Mar. Biol. Res. Invest. Report 1996; 70, 1-47.

LP van Ofwegen and MH Schleyer. Corals of the south-west Indian Ocean V: Leptophyton benayahui gen. nov. & spec. nov. (Cnidaria, Alcyonacea) from deep reefs at Durban and off the KwaZulu-Natal south coast, South Africa. Oceanogr. Res. Inst. Invest. Report 1997; 71, 1-12.

MH Schleyer, GB Reinicke and LP van Ofwegen. A Field Guide to the Soft Corals of the Western Indian Ocean and Red Sea. Sida, Kalmar, Sweden. Illustrated CD with text. 2003.

C Monniot, F Monniot, C Griffiths and M Schleyer. A monograph on South African ascidians. Ann. South Afri. Museum 2001; 108, 1-141.

MH Schleyer and L Celliers. Modelling reef zonation in the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park, South Africa. Estuar. Coast. Shelf S 2005; 63, 373-84.

MH Schleyer, JM Heikoop, MJ Risk. A benthic survey of Aliwal Shoal and assessment of the effects of a wood pulp effluent on the reef. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2006; 52, 503-14.

MH Schleyer. South African Coral Communities. In: T McClanahan, C Sheppard and D Obura (eds.). Coral Reefs of the Indian Ocean: their Ecology and Conservation. Oxford University Press, New York, 2000, p. 83-105.

B Riegl, MH Schleyer, PJ Cook and GM Branch. Structure of Africa’s southernmost coral communities. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 1995; 56, 676-91.

L Celliers and MH Schleyer. Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora austera dominance on a high-energy reef top at Kosi-Bay, South Africa. Coral Reefs 2001; 20, 244.

AHH Macdonald. 2004, The tramp coral, Stylophora pistillata, in the south west Indian Ocean: Ecomorph or speciation? M.Sc. thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Glenwood, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

MH Schleyer, A Kruger and Y Benayahu. Reproductive strategies of South African corals. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Coelenterate Biology. Leeuwenhorst, Noordwijkerhout, Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden. 1997, p. 429-35.

BE Brown. Adaptations of reef corals to physical environmental stress. Adv. Mar. Biol. 1997; 31, 220-99.

GK Ostrander, KM Armstrong, ET Knobbe, D Gerace and EP Scully. Rapid transition in the structure of a coral reef community. The effects of coral bleaching and physical disturbance. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA. 2000; p. 5297-302.

ARD Stebbing. Stress, health and homeostasis. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 1981; 12, 326-9.

H Selye. The general adaptation syndrome and the diseases of adaptation. J. Clin. Endocrinol. 1946; 6, 117-231.

Y Loya, K Sakai, K Yamazato, Y Nakano, H Sambali, R van Woesik. Coral bleaching, the winners and the losers. Ecol. Lett. 2001; 4, 122-131.

IM Côte´, JA Gill, TA Gardner and AR Watkinson. Measuring coral reef decline through meta-analyses. Philos. T. T. Soc. B. 2005; 360, 385-95.

IM Côte´, TA Gardner, JA Gill, DJ Hutchinson and AR Watkinson. New approaches to estimating recent ecological changes on coral reefs. Conserv. Biol. Ser. 2006; 13; 293-313.

C Parmesan and G Yohe. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 2002; 421, 37-42.

TA Gardner, IM Côté, JA Gill, A Grant and AR Watkinson. Long-term region-wide declines in Caribbean corals. Science 2003; 301, 958-60.

JF Bruno and ER Selig. Regional decline of coral cover in the Indo-Pacific: timing, extent, and subregional comparisons. PLoS ONE. 2007, DOI: doi:10.1371/journal.pone. 0000711.

TA Gardner, IM Côté, JA Gill, A Grant and AR Watkinson. Hurricanes and Caribbean coral reefs: impacts, recovery patterns, and role in long-term decline. Ecology 2005; 86, 174-84.

RL Hayes and TJ Goreau. The tropical coral reef ecosystem as a harbinger of global warming. World Resour. Rev. 1991; 3, 306-32.

IPCC. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. In: JT Houghton, LG Meira Filho, BA Callander, N Harris, A Kattenberg and K Maskell (eds.). Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996.

SD Donner, WJ Skirving, CM Little, M Oppenheimer and O Hoegh-Guldberg. Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change. Glob. Change Biol. 2005; 11, 2251-65.

IPCC. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. In: Y Ding, DJ Griggs, M Noguer, PJ van der Linden, K Maskell and CA Johnson (eds.). Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Houghton. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001.

TR McClanahan, M Atweberhan, C Ruiz Sebastian, NAJ Graham, S Wilson, JH Bruggemann and MMM Guillaume. Predictability of coral bleaching from synoptic satellite and in situ temperature observations. Coral Reefs 2007; 26, 695-701.

N Kongjandtre, T Ridgway, S Ward and O Hoegh-Guldberg. Broadcast spawning patterns of Favia species on the inshore reefs of Thailand. Coral Reefs 2009; 29, 227-34.

BE Brown, RP Dune and H Chansang. Coral bleaching relative to elevated sea surface temperature in the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean) over the last 50 y. Coral Reefs 1996; 15, 151-2.

N Phongsuwan. Extensive coral mortality as a result of bleaching in the Andaman Sea in 1995. Coral Reefs 1998; 17, 70.

S Chavanich, V Viyakarn, T Loyjiw, P Pattaratamrong and A Chankong. Mass bleaching of soft coral, Sarcophyton spp. in Thailand and the role of temperature and salinity stress. J. Mar. Sci. 2009; 66, 1515-9.

C Wilkinson. Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, Australia, 2008.

K Carpenter, M Abrar, G Aeby, RB Aronson, S Banks, A Bruckner, A Chiriboga, J Cortés, JC Delbeek, L Devantier, GJ Edgar, AJ Edwards, D Fenner, HM Guzmán, BW Hoeksema, G Hodgson, O Johan, WY Licuanan, SR Livingstone, ER Lovell, JA Moore, DO Obura, D Ochavillo, BA Polidoro, WF Precht, MC Quibilan, C Reboton, ZT Richards, AD Rogers, J Sarciangco, A Sheppard, C Sheppard, J Smith, S Stuart, E Turuk, JEN Veron, C Wallace, E Weil and E Wood. One-third of reef-building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts. Science 2008; 321, 560-3.

JEN Veron. Mass extinctions and ocean acidification: biological constraints on geological dilemmas. Coral Reefs 2008b; 27, 459-72.

RW Buddemeier, JA Kleypas and RB Aronson. Coral Reefs and Global Climate Change: Potential Contributions of Climate Change to Stresses on Coral Reef Ecosystems. Pew Centre on Global Climate Change. Virginia, USA, 2004, p. 17-33.

M van Oppen and JM Lough (Eds.). Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. In: MS Pratchett, SK Wilson, NAJ Graham, PL Munday GP Jones and NVC Polunin (eds.). Coral Bleaching and Consequences for Motile Reef Organism: Past, Present and Uncertain Future Effects. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, German, 2008, p. 139-52.

JEN Veron, O Hoegh-Guldberg, TM Lenton, JM Lough, DO Obura, P Pearce-Kelly, CRC Sheppard, M Spalding, MG Stafford-Smith and AD Rogers. The coral reef crisis: The critical importance of < 350 ppm CO2. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2009; 58, 1428-36.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/image012_400

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

http://wjst.wu.ac.th

Last updated: 25 September 2018