Potential of Salicylic Acid and Synthetic Surfactant on Anthracene and Fluoranthene Remediation by Impatiens Balsamina
Keywords:Anthracene, Phytoremediation, Salicylic acid, Triton X-100, Tween 80
Plant growth regulators and synthetic surfactants are choices for enhancing the efficiency of PAH phytoremediation. In this study, the use of salicylic acid alone, surfactant alone (Triton X-100 or Tween 80), or salicylic acid together with Triton X-100 or Tween 80 on anthracene and fluoranthene removal by Impatiens balsamina were investigated. On days 15 and 30 of the experiment, the spraying of salicylic acid as 0.01 mM and watering of 1X CMC of Triton X-100 or Tween 80 were performed. Then, the plant growth parameters and anthracene or fluoranthene remaining in the soil were analyzed on day 45 of the experiment. The results revealed that I. balsamina did not enhance anthracene (77.4 % remained) and fluoranthene (74.6 % remained) removal when compared with unplanted soil (63.8 % of anthracene and 70.0 % of fluoranthene remained). Salicylic acid spraying in combination with watering of Triton X-100 (47.1 % anthracene remained) or Tween 80 (59.7 % anthracene remained) enhanced anthracene removal in unplanted soil; however, enhanced fluoranthene removal was not observed. In planted soil, salicylic acid spraying alone, Tween 80 watering alone or salicylic acid spraying in combination with synthetic surfactant (Triton X-100 or Tween 80) watering slightly enhanced anthracene removal (54.9-58.0 % of anthracene remained) but not fluoranthene (67.9 - 81.9 % of fluoranthene remained). The results revealed that planting contaminated soil with I. balsamina was not suitable to stimulate anthracene and fluoranthene degradation in this study. Biostimulation of unplanted soil with synthetic surfactant and salicylic acid was suitable to stimulate the removal of anthracene from the soil.
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