Combined Phytotoxicity of Fluorene, Fluoranthrene or Phenanthrene in Anthracene-Contaminated Soil to Crop Seedling Growth

Khanitta SOMTRAKOON, Champee CHAIMUANGKOON, Duanganong PHALAPHOL, Waraporn CHOUYCHAI

Abstract


The phytotoxicity of different combinations of phenanthrene, fluorene, and fluoranthrene in anthracene-contaminated soil to seedling growth was studied. Seeds of sticky rice and water morning glory were planted in soil contaminated, with anthracene alone, a mixture of anthracene with each polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and various combinations of PAHs. The results showed that anthracene + fluorene and anthracene + fluoranthene were more toxic to the growth of sticky rice seedlings than anthracene alone or anthracene + phenanthrene. However, all combinations of anthracene with other PAHs were toxic to water morning glory seedlings. When there were 3 - 4 PAHs present together, anthracene + fluoranthene + fluorene was the most toxic combination for shoot length, root length, and fresh weight of both plants, but not for dry weight. Responses of dicot and monocot to the toxicity of PAH co-contamination were different when anthracene was present alone or with other PAHs.

doi:10.14456/WJST.2015.20


Keywords


Co-contamination, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, toxicity testing

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References


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