Recording Thirteen New Species of Phytoplankton in Euphrates River Environment in Iraq
Keywords:Biodiversity, Euphrates River, freshwater, microalgae, phytoplankton
Thirteen species of phytoplankton were recorded for the first time in the Upper Euphrates River environment in Iraq during the period from January to June 2017. Five locations were selected along the river (Jubba village, Al-Baghdadi district, Dollab village, Hit city and Ramadi city). Among the 13 taxa, seven species belonging to the Chlorophyta division were identified: Excentrosphaera viridis, Monoraphidium caribeum, Nephrochlamys willeana, Oonephris palustris, Staurodesmus cuspidatus, Palmodictyon varium, and Westellopsis linearis. Moreover, two species of the Chrysohyta division, Rhizochrysis limnetica and Chrysidiastrum catenatum, were recorded in the study area. Two species belonging to the Bacillariophyta division were Acanthoceras zachariasii and Stenopterobia intermedia, showing in the study area. One species belonging to the Cyanophyta division, Stichosiphon sansibaricus, was recorded in Hit and Ramadi, and one species of Euglenophyta (Phacus orbicularis) was also recorded. Some physicochemical properties of the water from these locations were measured, including water temperature values ranging from 8 - 13 °C; pH ranging from 7.22 - 7.58; EC ranging from 580 - 755 µS.cm-1, while salinity was 0.30 - 0.44 g.L-1. Nutrient, such as nitrates, and phosphate values ranged from 156 - 232 µg.L-1 and 8.21 - 21 µg.L-1, respectively. The presence of new phytoplankton in Iraqi freshwater confirms the quality of river water in this area. This study was carried out to contribute to the knowledge of freshwater phytoplankton in Iraq for the upper region of the Euphrates River and their tributaries.
CJ Vörösmarty, P McIntyre, MO Gessner, D Dudgeon, A Prusevich, P Green, S Glidden, SE Bunn, CA Sullivan and CR Liermann. Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature, 2010; 467, 555-61.
L Vander. Water Resources of the World. New York, USA, 1975.
GW Prescott. Algae of the Western Great Lakes Area. William, C. Brown, Dubuque, Iowa, 1982, p. 977.
S Ghosh, S Barinova and JP Keshri. Diversity and seasonal variation of phytoplankton community in the Santragachi Lake, West Bengal, India. Q. Sci. Connect 2012; 3, 1-19.
E Acs, K Szabo, B Toth and KT Kiss. Investigation of Benthic algae communities, Especially Diatoms of some Hungarian streams in connection with Reference condition of the water Frame work Directives. Acta Botanica Hungarica 2004; 46, 255-77.
S Shrestha, SK Rai and MR Dhakal. Algae of Itahari municipality and its adjoining area. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. 2013; 1, 5-10.
LP Dalal and RS Nisal. Diversity of fresh water algae of the Mahakali Dam (Wardha, Maharashtra, India). Asiatic J. Biotechnol. Resour. 2012; 3, 1479-82.
MM Al-Mahdawi and HA Ali. Fifteen new records for freshwater algae of Iraq. J. Ecol. Saf. 2014; 8, 574-82.
HA Ali and MM Al-Mahdawi. Phytoplankton diversity and pollution index in North Part of Euphrates River, Iraq. Iraqi J. Sci. 2015; 56, 2223-36.
FH Aziz and AQ Muhammed. Twenty new records of algae in some springs around Safeen Mountain Area. J. Adv. Lab. Res. Biol. 2016; 7, 79-85.
AA Al-Hussieny. Recordind of new algal species within the Euphrates River Environment in Iraq. Int. J. Sci. Nat. 2017; 8, 1-6.
FH Hassan, WD Taylor, MS Al-Taee, HJ Al-Fatlawi. Phytoplankton composition of Euphrates river in Al-Hindiya barrage and Kifil city region of Iraq. J. Environ. Bio. 2010; 31, 343-50.
HAA Aldaraji. 2012, Use of Phytoplankton as Biological Indicators in Effect Assessment of Al-Sora-Al-Sofia Drainage Canal in Euphrates Water Quality Estern of Ramady. Master Thesis, College of Education for Women, University of Anbar, Iraq.
HAAS Al-Gaff. 2015, Impact of Hadithah Dam and Some Pollution Sources on Phytoplankton Community Composition and its Environment in Northern part of Euphrates River, Al-Anbar Province. Ph.D. Thesis. College of Science. University of Anbar, Iraq, p. 174.
APHA, American Public Health Association. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st ed. Washington, DC, 2005, p. 22621.
JM Salman, F Hassan and MA Baiee. Practical methods in environmental and pollution laboratory. Environmental Research and Studies Center, University of Babylon, Iraq, 2017, p. 144.
RAM Hadi. 1981, Algal Studies of the River USK. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cardiff. College Cardiff. P. 364.
TV Desikachary. Cyanophyta. Indian Council of Agricultural Research. India, 1959.
GM Smith. The Fresh Water Algae of the United States. 2nd ed. McGraw Hill, New York, 1950, p. 719.
GW Prescott. How to Know the Fresh Water. 3rd ed. Williame Brown, Dubuque, Iowa, 1979, p. 348.
GCF Hinton and BK Moulood. Some Diatoms Brackish Water Habitats in Southern Iraq. Nova Hedwigia 1980; 31, 436-47.
JP Wehr and RG Sheath. Fresh water algae of North America: Ecology and Classification. Elsevier Science, USA, 2003, p. 935.
BK Maulood and JJ Toma. Checklist of Algae in Iraq. J. Bob. Univ. C: Pure Appl. Sci. 2004; 9, 1-17.
RA Hadi, AM Ismail and AH Talib. Check List of the algae in Diyala River, Iraq. Um-Salama Sci. J. 2009; 6, 329-45.
KM Bahram, FM Hassan, AA Al-Lami, JJ Toma and AM Ismail. Checklist of Algal Flora in Iraq. Republic of Iraq, Ministry of Environment, 2013, p. 94.
SA Shehata, SA Badr, GH Ali, MM Ghazy, AK Moawad and SZ Wahba. Assessment of Nile water quality via phytoplankton changes and toxicity bioassay test. J. Appl. Sci. Res. 2009; 5, 2083-95.
HA AL-Saadi, TI Kassim and AA AL-lami. Spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton population in the upper region of the Euphrates River. Iraq. Limnologica 2000; 30, 83-90.
FM Hassan, NF Kathim and FH Hussein. Effect of chemical and chemical properties of River water in shatt Al-Hilla on phytoplankton communities. E-Journal Chem. 2008; 5, 323-30.
JM Salman, HJ Jawad, AJ Nassar and FM Hassan. A study of phytoplankton communities and related environmental factors in Euphrates river (between two cities: Al-Musayyab and Hindiya, Iraq. J. Env. Pro. 2013; 4, 1071-9.
AM Rabee. Biodiversity of Rotifera and Cladocera in the upper region of Euphrates River-Iraq. Baghdad Sci. J. 2007; 4, 221-32.
GK Reid. Ecology of Inland Waters and Estuaries. Van Nostrand Rein, New York, 1961, p. 375.
YA AL-Gahwari. 2003, Use of Phytoplankton Abundance and Species Diversity for Monitoring Coastal Water Quality. Master Thesis, College of Science. University of Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
PS Giller and B Malmqoist. The Biology of Stream and Rivers. New York Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 296.
NL Çiçek and F Yamuc. Using epilithic algae assemblages to assess water quality in Lake Kovada and Kovada Channel (Turkey), and in relation to environmental factors. Turkish J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2017; 17, 701-11.
A Al Bomola. Temporal and Spatial Changes in Water Quality of the Euphrates River-Iraq. Sheet TVVR-11/5013. Division of Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, 2011, p. 135.
YP Li, CY Tang, ZB Yu and K Acharya. Correlations between algae and water quality: factors driving eutrophication in Lake Taihu, China. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech. 2014; 11, 169-82.
BI Tas, A Gonulol and E Tas. A study on the seasonal variation of the phytoplankton of lake Cernek (Samsun-Turkey). Turkish J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2002; 2, 121-8.
MI Hossain, MM Alam, MMB Kamal, SM Galib. Investigation of phytoplankton and physico-chemical parameters in nursery, grow out and brood stock ponds. J. Sci. Res. 2013; 5, 555-71.
HA Ganai and S Parveen. Effect of physico-chemical conditions on the structure and composition of the phytoplankton community in Wular Lake at Lankrishipora Kashmir. J. Biodivers. Conservat. 2014; 6, 71-84.
M Das and T Panda. Water quality and phytoplankton population in Sewage Fed River of Mahanadi, Orissa, India. J. Life Sci. 2010; 2, 81-5.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.