Antimalarial, Anti-hemolytic, Hepatoprotective, and Nephroprotective Activities of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Leaf Extract in Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice
Keywords:Antimalarial, anti-hemolytic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, Gynostemma pentaphyllum
AbstractMalaria is still a major problem around the world, especially in tropical and sub-tropical zones. Malaria-associated hemolysis and liver and renal injuries have been reported to be causes of death in malaria cases. In this respect, finding plant extracts which have a protective effect against these pathologies induced by malaria are urgently needed. The present study aimed to evaluate the antimalarial, anti-hemolytic, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective properties of Gynostemma pentaphyllum leaf extract (GPE) in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. ICR mice were infected intraperitoneally with 1´107 parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA (PbANKA), and given the extract (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) orally for 4-consecutive days. Parasitemia, packed cell volume (PCV), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatinine levels were measured. The results showed that during PbANKA infection in mice, parasitemia was increased from day 1 - 14 post-infection with hemolysis, as indicated by the reduction of PCV. Moreover, liver and renal damage during malaria infection were observed, as indicated by the marked increase of ALT and creatinine levels in infected mice. Interestingly, these pathologies induced by PbANKA infection were protected and maintained at normal levels in PbANKA infected mice treated with GPE in a dose-dependent manner. The highest activity was found at a dose of 1000 mg/kg of GPE. No effects on PCV, ALT, or creatinine levels were observed in normal mice treated with 1000 mg/kg of GPE. Moreover, GPE exerted a dose-dependent reduction of parasitemia against PbANKA, with percent inhibitions of 57.6, 78.4, and 89.6 % at doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg of GPE, respectively. It can be concluded that GPE exerted antimalarial, anti-hemolytic, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities against PbANKA infection in mice.
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