In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Thai Stingless Bee Propolis from Chanthaburi Orchard
Keywords:Cytotoxicity, stingless bees, propolis, Chanthaburi, sulphorhodamine
Stingless bee propolis has a complex chemical composition and has been reported to possess various pharmacological properties. Chanthaburi province is the major source of stingless bee propolis production in Thailand. In the present study, the cytotoxic activities of the crude extracts of 3 different stingless bee (Tetragonula pagdeni, Lepidotrigona ventralis, and Lepidotrigona terminata) propolis from the same orchard were determined by sulphorhodamine assay against 4 human cancer cell lines (KB, HepG2, Caco-2, and SK-MEL-28) and a normal human cell line (Hs68). T. pagdeni propolis extract expressed the highest cytotoxicity on cancer cells, but a low toxicity on normal cells. On the contrary, L. ventralis and L. terminata propolis extracts demonstrated low cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. Compounds from T. pagdeni propolis were investigated and elucidated as gamma and alpha mangostin. The cytotoxicity of these pure compounds was comparable to doxorubicin, a positive control. These compounds may be responsible for the cytotoxicity activity on cancer cells of T. pagdeni propolis from a Chanthaburi plantation.
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