Heavy Metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis, Rapana venosa and Eriphia verrucosa from the Black Sea Coasts of Turkey as Bioindicators of Pollution

Levent BAT, Hasan Can ÖZTEKIN

Abstract


In the present study, the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), the veined Rapa whelk (Rapana venosa), and the warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) were collected from the Black Sea coast of Turkey in order to obtain data on the bioavailability of aluminium, arsenic, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, cadmium, and lead off the Sinop coast of the Black Sea in 2013. The aims of the study were to investigate the levels of heavy metals in benthic macroorganisms, in order to compare the results with the maximum permissible limits of these heavy metals proposed by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, the European Union, the World Health Organization, and the Turkish Food Codex. Hg showed the least concentrations in all organisms, and was not detected in both M. galloprovincialis and R. venosa. Pb was also not detected in organisms, except in M. galloprovincialis. The highest values of Cu, Zn, and Fe were determined in E. verrucosa. Al was at the limit of detection in R. venosa, but was measurable in E. verrucosa (1.4 µg g-1 dry wt.) and M. galloprovincialis (1.4 µg g-1 dry wt.). As, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Cd levels in macrobenthic organisms ranged from 2.3 µg g-1 dry wt. in M. galloprovincialis to 6.7 µg g-1 dry wt. in R. venosa, 0.8 µg g-1 dry wt. in M. galloprovincialis to 53.9 µg g-1 dry wt. in E. verrucosa, 21.6 µg g-1 dry wt. in R. venosa to 54.8 µg g-1 dry wt. in E. verrucosa, 29.3 µg g-1 dry wt. in M. galloprovincialis to 86.5 µg g-1 dry wt. in E. verrucosa, and 0.32 µg g-1 dry wt. in E. verrucosa to 4.4 µg g-1 dry wt. in R. venosa, respectively. The weekly intakes of the studied metals per kg of body values did not exceed the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake established, with the exception of the highest Cd level in R. venosa. The obtained data, compared with the guidelines, showed that the metal concentration in M. galloprovincialis, R. venosa, and E. verrucosa are below the permissible level defined by international organizations, with no presentable danger to human consumption. These species could be a very good biomonitor for heavy metals.


Keywords


Heavy metals, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Rapana venosa, Eriphia verrucosa, Black Sea, Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI)

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References


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