Efficacy of Antifungal Metabolites of Bacillus spp. for Controlling Tomato Damping-off Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum



A total of 4 strains of bacteria were isolated from the leaf surface of the rambutan using a tissue transplanting technique. They were characterized, by a dual culture test, for their efficacy to inhibit mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of the damping-off on tomato. All 4 strains significantly inhibited mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at room temperature (27 °C). B-NST-02 and B-NST-03 gave values of inhibition of 62.0 % and   57.5 %, respectively. All strains were identified as Bacillus spp. Antifungal metabolites extracted from all 4 strains were tested at 1,000 mg/l. Tomato seedlings treated in the laboratory with metabolites from B-NST-03 and B-NST-02 showed germination of 85.5 % and 82.0 %, respectively. Under glasshouse conditions, seedling treated with metabolites from B-NST-03 and B-NST-02 provided seed germination rates were 92.5 % and 92.0 %, respectively, while the controls treated with either sterile water or 2 % methanol had only 28.0 % and 26.5 % seed germination rates, respectively. In P. aphanidermatum viability test, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum treated with antifungal metabolites from 4 strains of Bacillus spp. showed no visible growth, while the control with sterile water or 2 % methanol, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum rapidly grew and covered the whole surface of the PDA in the Petri dish within 5 days.


Antifungal metabolite, tomato damping-off, Bacillus spp., biological control

Full Text:



H Wolfhechel and DF Jensen. Use of Trichoderma harzianum and Gliocladium virens for the biological control of post-emergence damping-off and root rot of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. J. Phytopathol. 1992; 136, 221-30.

L Hong, W Duccan, AL Kathryn, B Frank and L Carlo. Biological control of Botrytis, Phytophthora and Pythium by Bacillus subtilis Cof1 and CL27 of micropropagated plants in high-humidity fogging glasshouse. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. 1998; 52, 109-12.

GY Yu, JB Sinclair, GL Hartman and BL Bertagnolli. Production of iturin A by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens suppressing Rhizoctonia solani. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2002; 34, 955-63.

P Yenjit, W Intanoo, C Chamswarng, J Siripanich and W Intana. Use of promising bacterial strains for controlling antracnose on leaf and fruit of mango caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Walailak J. Sci. & Tech. 2004; 1, 56-69.

TC Paulitz, T Zhou and L Rankin. Selection of rhizosphere bacteria for biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum on hydroponically grown cucumber. Biol. Control 1992; 2, 226-37.

WGD Fernando, S Nakkeeran, Y Zhang and S Savchuk. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary by Pseudomonas and Bacillus species on canola petals. Crop Prot. 2006; 26, 100-7.

DP Collins and BJ Jacobsen. Optimizing a Bacillus subtilis isolate for biological control of sugar beet Cercospora leaf spot. Biol. Control 2002; 26, 153-61.

GE Harman. Myths and dogmas of biocontrol changes in perceptions derived from research on Trichoderma harzianum T-22. Plant Dis. 2000; 84, 377-93.

GN Agrios. Plant Pathology, 5th ed. Academic Press, New York, 2005, p. 703.

E Ryu. On the Gram-differentiation of bacteria by the simplest method. J. Jpn. Soc. Vet. Sci. 1938; 17; 31.

W Intana and C Chamswarng. Control of Chinese-kale damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum by antifungal metabolites of Trichoderma virens. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 2007; 29, 919-27.

SAS Institute Inc. SAS Online Doc. Version 8 with PDF files. SAS Institute Inc., USA, 2000.

DR Fravel and HW Spurr. Biocontrol of tobacco brown spot disease by Bacillus cereus subsp. Mycoides in a controlled environment. Phytopathology 1977; 67, 930-2.

I Koomen and P Jeffries. Effects of antagonistic microorganisms on the post-harvest development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on mango. Plant Pathol. 1993; 42, 230-7.

S Yoshida, S Hiradate, T Tsukamoto, K Hatakeda and A Shirata. Antimicrobial activity of culture filtrate of Bacillus amyloliquefacien RC-2 isolated from mulberry leaves. Phytopathology 2001; 91, 181-7.

CJ Baker, JR Stavely, CA Thomas, M Sasser and JS MacFall. Inhibitory effect of Bacillus subtilis on Uromyces phaseoli and on development of rust on bean leaves. Phytopathology 1983; 73, 1148-52.

GJ Stessel, C Leben and GW Keitt. Partial purification and properties of the antifungal antibiotic, toximycin. Phytopathology 1953; 43, 23-6.

RC Gueldner, CC Reilly, PL Pusey and CE Costello. Isolation and identification of iturins as antifungal peptides in biological control of peach brown rot with Bacillus subtilis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1988; 36, 366-70.

CD McKeen, CC Reilly and PL Pusey. Production and partial characterization of antifungal substances antagonistic to Monilinia fructicola from Bacillus subtilis. Phytopathology 1986; 76, 136-9.

GS Asante and AL Neal. Characterization of fungistatic substance produced by a Bacillus antagonistic to Ceratocystis ulmi. Phytopathology 1963; 54, 819-22.

F Drablos, D Nichoson and M Ronning. EXAFS study of zinc coordination in bacitracin A. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 1999; 1431, 433-42.

GP Trevor, J Daniel, O Sullivan and LM Larry. Identification of bacilysin, chlorotetaine and itirin A produced by Bacillus sp. strain CS93 isolated from pozol, a maxican fermented dough. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2003; 70, 631-4.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 2228-835X


Last updated: 13 February 2019