Muscle adaptation and postural deviation in office workers with different subtypes of scapular dyskinesis
The upper extremity tasks require the energy originated from proximal to distal continuity as a kinetic chain of movement. The scapula is very important for this chain because of its connection of the limb to the torso. Dysfunction of scapula or scapular dyskinesis then could lead to tissue injury and pain developed in upper quarter region. The faulty scapular alignment is related to changes of surrounding muscle properties to be in shortened or elongated length.These might be associated with neck, shoulder and scapular pain because altered force loading and transferring. Scapular dyskinesis can be classified into four subtypes depended on the position and motion of the scapula bone. However, the relationship between subtypes of scapular dyskinesis and axioscapular muscle adaptations along with postural of upper quarter deviations is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify axioscapular muscle adaptations and postural deviations in symptomatic office workers with different subtypes of scapular dyskinesis.
The participants were symptomatic office workers with different subtypes of scapular dyskinesis. They were evaluated the subtypes of scapular dyskinesis corresponded with flexibility of pectoralis minor, upper trapezius and levator scapulae using muscle length tests. The performances of serratus anterior, upper trapezius, middle trapezius, lower trapezius and rhomboids were also examined using manual muscle test. The postural deviations of cervical, shoulder and thoracic were also investigated using postural analysis methods.
The results showed high incidence of axioscapular muscle adaptations including of decreased flexibility of pectoralis minor, upper trapezius and levator scapulae in all subtypes as well as decreased performance of serratus anterior, middle trapezius, lower trapezius and rhomboids. The high incidence of postural deviations including forward head, rounded shoulder and thoracic hyper-kyphosis were also found in all subtypes of scapular dyskinesis.In conclusion, this study showed the relationship between subtypes of scapular dyskinesis and the changes of surrounding structures. These should be considered for proper management in symptomatic individuals with scapular dyskinesis.