A Visualization of Air Pollution Distribution over an Observed Area Surrounded by Mountains: A Computational Approach


  • Udomsak RAKWONGWAN Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6909-4111
  • Piyanut TANGMANUSSUKUM Division of Mathematics and Statistic, School of Science, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1741-5248
  • Sanae RUJIVAN Center of Excellence in Data Science for Health Study, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand




Air pollution visualization, Air pollution management, Advection-diffusion equation, Navier-Stokes equations, Finite element method


We study the propagation of pollutants emitted from a single generator such as a factory chimney located between 2 mountains as well as its effects on an observed area such as a village or agricultural land. The problem is formulated as a system of partial differential equations, composed of Navier-Stokes equations and an advection-diffusion equation, and is solved by the finite element method. We visualize the propagation of the pollutants for several variants of the problem depending on the heights of the mountains and investigate their negative effects on the observed area by computing an average concentration of the pollutants over the observed area. We found that the observed area between the two mountains experienced a long-term negative effect compared with those located on flat land. This is because the mountain on the side, where the wind is blowing, obstructs the wind resulting in air recirculation. In contrast, the other mountain bounces some pollutants back to the observed area, preventing them from leaving the domain. The higher the mountains, the longer the time the pollutants remain in the observed area. If the heights of the mountains encircling the observed area are not equal, the residual remains in the area longer if the taller mountain is on the windward side.


  • Air Visualization of air pollution between two mountains
  • Air pollution propagation modeling
  • A system of partial differential equations for air pollution modeling with FEM



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How to Cite

RAKWONGWAN, U. ., TANGMANUSSUKUM, P. ., & RUJIVAN, S. . (2021). A Visualization of Air Pollution Distribution over an Observed Area Surrounded by Mountains: A Computational Approach. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 18(12), Article 9805 (14 pages). https://doi.org/10.48048/wjst.2021.9805