Diffusion Properties of Garcinia Fruit Acids (Garcinia atroviridis)



The diffusion properties of garcinia fruit acids (Garcinia atroviridis) were investigated in a batch reactor. The influences of two variables were studied: material thickness and extraction temperature. Stirring was continuous to assure turbulent flow inside the vessel. Garcinia fruits were sliced into infinite slabs of two different thicknesses, 2.5 and 4.0 mm. Each group of a given thickness was then separated into three sub-groups. Each sub-group was then subjected to individual extraction temperatures of 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C. Distilled water was used as the extraction solvent. The experiment was carried out in well-agitated vessel with a ratio of water to fruit material of 30:1 (w/w). Each experiment took an operating extraction time of 3 h; unless it was under equilibrium conditions, in which case it was left for a further 24 h. Solid samples were taken at different periods and the amount of total acids determined. The total acid concentration was then calculated. Diffusion properties like solute diffusivities, times of cell plasmolysis, equilibrium distribution coefficients and volumetric mass transfer coefficients were determined to be in the range of 7.95×10-10 - 12.14×10-10 m2/s for diffusivities, 346.3 - 1158.4 s for times of cell plasmolysis, 1.06 - 1.07 for equilibrium distribution coefficients, and 3.85×10-4 - 9.40×10-4 s-1 for volumetric mass transfer coefficients. These values are thus available for simulation purposes and optimization of the processing operation.


Garcinia fruit, Garcinia atroviridis, diffusion properties, mass transfer characteristics, diffusivity, equilibrium distribution coefficient, time of cell plasmolysis, mass transfer coefficients

Full Text:



K Hayamizu, H Hirakawa, D Oikawa, T Nakanishi, T Takagi, T Tachibana and M Furuse. Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum leptin and insulin in mice. Fitoterapia 2003; 74, 267-73.

AC Sullivan, J Triscari and L Cheng. Appetite regulation by drugs and endogeneous substances. Curr. Concep. Nutr. 1993; 12, 139-67.

World Health Organization. Report: Controlling the global obesity epidemic. Available at: www.who.int/nut/obs.htm, accessed March 2006.

BM Popkin, S Paeratakul, F Zhai and G Keyou. A review of dietary and environmental correlates of obesity with emphasis on developing countries. Obes. Res. 1995; 3, 145S-35S.

CA Haller and NL Benowitz. Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous system events associated with dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids. N. Engl. J. Med. 2000; 343, 1833-38.

HG Preuss, D Bagchi, M Bagchi, CV Sanyasi Rao, S Satyanarayana and DK Dey. Efficacy of a novel, natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX, niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract in weight management in human volunteers: A pilot study. Nutr. Res. 2004; 24, 45-58.

GK Jayaprakasha and KK Sakariah. Determination of organic acids in Garcinia cambogia (Desr.) by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 1998; 806, 337-9.

K Hayamizu, Y Ishii, I Kaneko, M Shen, Y Okuhara, N Sigematsu, H Tomi, M Furuse, G Yoshino and H Shimasaki. Effects of Garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric acid) on visceral fat accumulation: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Curr. Ther. Res. 2003; 64, 551-67.

Richard D Mattes and L Bormann. Effect of (-)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables. Physiol. Behav. 2000; 71, 87-94.

RR Ramos, JLS Saenz and RJA Aguilar. Extract of Garcinia cambogia in controlling obesity. Inves. Med. Int. 1995; 22, 97-100.

YS Lewis and S Neelakantan. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid-the principal acid in the fruits of Garcinia cambogia desr. Phytochemistry. 1965; 4, 619-25.

JA Watson and JM Lowenstein. Citrate and the conversion of carbohydrate into fat: Fatty acid synthesis by a combination of cytoplasm and mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 1970; 245, 5993-6002.

JA Watson, M Fang and JM Lowenstein. Tricarballyate and hydroxycitrate: Substrate and inhibitor of ATP: Citrate oxaloacetate lyase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1969; 135, 209-17.

MM Mackeen, AM Ali, NH Lajis, K Kawazu, Z Hassan, M Amran, M Habsah, LY Mooi and SM Mohamed. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumour-promoting and cytotoxic activities of different plant part extracts of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. anders. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 72, 395-402.

W Rittirut and C Siripatana. Drying characteristics of Garninia atroviridis. Walailak J. Sci. & Tech. 2006; 3, 13-32.

D Clouatre and ME Rosenbaum. The Diet and Health Benefits of HCA (hydroxycitric acid). New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing. 1994, p. 1-48.

AOAC-1990. Official method of analysis of the association of official analytical chemist. 1990. 15th ed. Verginia: The association of official analytical chemists, Inc., USA.

C Siripatana. Solute diffusion in fruit, vegetable and cereal processing I: Simplified solutions for diffusion in anomalous shape. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 1997; 19, 77-88.

JAM Spaninks. Design procedure for solid liquid extraction. Doctoral thesis. 1979. Agricultural University of Wageningen. The Netherlands.

GD Saravacos. Mass Transfer Properties of Food. In: MA Rao and SSH Rizvi (eds). Engineering Properties of Foods. 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York. 1994, p. 169-221.

HG Schwartzberg and RY Chao. Solute diffusivity in leaching process. Food Technol. 1982; 36, 73-86.

J Crank. Mathematics of diffusion, 2nd ed. London Press, Oxford, UK. 1975. p. 414.

P Pairote and S Sirichai. Water diffusivity in papaya fruit. 1989. Annual Research Report. Department of Agro-industry. Faculty of Agro-industry. Prince of Songkhla University, Songkhla, Thailand.

T Thummadetsak. Mass transfer in pineapple juice extractor. 1996. M. Eng. Thesis. Prince of Songkhla University, Songkla, Thailand.

CJ Geankoplis. Transport process and unit operations. 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1993; p. 330-489.

C Siripatana and N Suparanon. Solute diffusion in fruit, vegetable and cereal processing II: Simplified solutions for continuous counter-current diffusion. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 1997; 19, 89-101.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 2228-835X


Last updated: 12 August 2019