Clustering Pandemic COVID-19 and Relationship to Temperature and Relative Humidity Among the Tropic and Subtropic Region


  • Giarno Paotere Meteorological Maritime Station, Indonesian Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency, Makassar 90163, Indonesia



COVID-19, Weather, World, Tropic, Subtropic


The outbreak of Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) has been spreading almost in all countries of the world and become a deadly pandemic. The infections and deaths vary from high in some countries and low in others. The weather conditions significantly affect life, including viruses. In low temperature and humidity the spreading of coronavirus is expected to be fast and massive, and on the other hand, high temperature and humidity decreases the virus. However, recent data of COVID-19 shows that in tropical region infection and deaths vary of which there is a need of thorough spreading analysis. The clustering of infections and mortality at the beginning of COVID-19 outbreak was group based on the country’s profile similarity, and associated with the meteorological factors. The result shows that countries such as China, Spain, Italy and the United States have very severe attacks of COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, countries with the potential real threats of COVID-19 infections are Austria, Australia, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bahrain, Brazil, Belarus, Canada, Switzerland, Czech Germany, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Algeria, Ecuador, Estonia, Egypt, Finland, France, Georgia, Croatia, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, India, Iraq, Iran, Japan, Cambodia, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Lithuania, Monaco, Macedonia, Mexico, Malaysia, Nigeria, Netherlands, Norway, Nepal, New Zealand , Oman, Philippines, Pakistan, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Sweden, Singapore and Thailand. The threat of COVID-19 is not only in dry and humid sub-tropical countries, but it cannot be undermined the effect to some warm and humid tropical countries such as Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, which are massively infected, and the mortality rate compared to the population are very high. The study also found that dynamic humidity is a factor that must be considered, especially in the tropics.


  • The COVID-19 pandemic that originated in Wuhan, China spreads rapidly around the world
  • Demographics and weather are thought to influence the spreading and death of COVID-19
  • Clustering of demographic and weather factors on COVID-19 shows that countries such as China, Spain, Italy, and the United States are experiencing severe attacks of COVID-19 infection
  • Covid threatens countries with high population density or large populations
  • Although warm and humid temperatures in the tropics such as Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines can a little slow the spreading of infection, the risk of COVID-19 infection remains high



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How to Cite

Giarno, G. (2021). Clustering Pandemic COVID-19 and Relationship to Temperature and Relative Humidity Among the Tropic and Subtropic Region. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 18(17), Article 9750 (13 pages).