Rheological Modeling, Spectroscopic and Physicochemical Characterization of Raphia hookeri (RH) Gum Exudate
Keywords:Raphia hookeri gum, physicochemical analysis, rheological modeling, food additives, pharmaceutical excipient
AbstractRaphia hookeri (RH) gum exudate has been analysed for physical (colour, odour, taste, pH, salinity, turbidity), chemical (solubility in some solvents, proximate/elemental composition, vitamin composition, phytochemicals and anti-nutrients) and spectroscopic (wavelength of maximum absorption, GCMS, FTIR and SEM) properties. The results obtained from the study revealed that RH gum has the potential for utilization as an emulsifier, a food additive and as a pharmaceutical excipient. Rheological modeling on the gum revealed that the average intrinsic value of the gum, (deduced from Huggins, Kraemer, Tanglerpaibul and Rao models) is approximately 3.0 dl/g. The calculated values of Huggins and Kraemer constants revealed the existence of molecular association in the gum. The gum is found to possess unique rheological properties including absence of degradation/conformational changes, existent of intra and inter molecular interactions, adoption of random coil model and absent of coil overlap transition. RH gum is a shear thinning, non- Newtonian gum with pseudo-plastic behavior. The calculated thermodynamic parameters were comparable to those reported for some food gums.
UD Akpabio, AE Akpakpan, UE Udo and UC Essien. Physicochemical characterization of exudates from Raffia Palm. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 2012; 3, 838-43.
A Berner-Strzelczyk, J Kolodziejska and MM Zgoda. Application of guar gum biopolymer in the prescription of tablets with sodium ibuprofen-quality tests and pharmaceutical availability in vitro. Polim. Med. 2006; 36, 3-11.
PO Ameh and NO Eddy. Commiphorapedunculata gum as a green inhibitor for the corrosion of aluminium alloy in 0.1 M HCl. Res. Chem. Intermed. 2014; 40, 2641-9.
J Higiro, TJ Herald and S Alavi. Rheological study of xanthan and locust bean gum interaction in dilute solution. Food Res. Int. 2006; 39, 165-75.
DE Okwu and FU Nnamdi. Evaluation of the chemical composition of Dacroydes edulis and Raphia hookeri mann and wendi exudates used in herbal medicine in South Easth Nigeria. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 2008; 5, 194-200.
NO Eddy, PO Ameh, CE Gimba and EE Ebenso. Rheological modeling, surface morphology and physicochemical properties of Anogeissusleiocarpus gum. Asian J. Chem. 2013; 25, 1666-72.
GS Mhinzi. Properties of gum exudates from selected Albizia species from Tanzania. Food Chem. 2002; 77, 301-4.
OHM Idris, PA Williams and GO Phillips. Characterization of gum from Acacia senegal trees of different age and location using multidetection gel permeation chromatography. Food Hydrocolloid. 1998; 12, 379-88.
JK Lelon, IO Jumba, JK Keter, W Chemuku and FDO Oduor. Assessment of physical properties of gum arabic from Acacia Senegal varieties in Baringo District, Kenya. Afr. J. Phys. Sci. 2010; 4, 95-8.
JS Alakall, SV Irtwange and M Mkavga. Rheological characteristics of food gum (Cissuspopulnea). Afr. J. Food Sci. 2009; 3, 237-42.
MM Jafar, E Zahra, S Mohammad, M Mohammad and G Babak. Physicochemical and emulsifying properties of Barijeh (Ferula gumosa) gum. Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 2007; 26, 81-8.
SE Ahmed, BE Mohamed and KA Karamalla. Analytical studies on the gum exudates from Anogeissuslei carpus. Pakistan J. Nutr. 2009; 8, 782-8.
EI Yassen, TJ Herald, FM Aramouni and S Alavi. Rheological properties of selected gum solutions. Food Res. Int. 2005; 38, 111-9.
RCM de Paula, SA Santana and JF Rodrigues. Composition and rheological properties of Albizia lebbeck gum exudate. Carbohydr. Polym. 2001; 44, 133-9.
K Khounvilay and W Sittikijypthin. Rheological behavior of tamarind seed gum in aqueous solutions. Food Hydrocolloid. 2012; 26, 334-8.
FF Simas-Tosin, RR Barraza, CLO Petkowicz, JLM Silveira, GL Sassaki, EMR Santos, PAJ Gorin and M Iacomini. Rheological and structural characteristics of peach tree gum exudates. Food Hydrocolloid. 2010; 24, 486-93.
X Ma and M Pawlik. Adsorption of guar gum onto quartz from dilute mixed electrolyte solutions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2006; 298, 609-14.
BA Ndon. Some morphological and chemical characteristics of developing fruits of Raphia hookeri J. Exp. Botany 1985; 36, 1817-30.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 13th ed. Horwitz, Benjamin Franklin Station, Washington DC, 1995.
HG Muller and G Tobin. Nutrition and Food Processing. Croom Helm, London, 1980.
NO Eddy, I Udofia, A Uzairu and C Obadimu. Physicochemical, spectroscopic and Rheological studies on Eucalyptus Citrodora (EC) gum. J. Polym. Biopolym. Phys. Chem. 2014; 2, 12-24.
MP Yadav, N Parris, DB Johnson and KB Hicks. Fractionation, characterization, and study of the emulsifying properties of corn fibre gum. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008; 56, 4181-7.
KA Karamalla, NE Siddig and ME Osman. Analytical data for Acasia Senegal var, Senegal gum samples collected between 1993 and 1995 from Sudan. Food Hydrocolloid. 1998; 12, 373-8.
DE Okwu and OD Omodamiro. Effect of Hexane extract and phytochemical content of Xylopia aethiopica and Ocimum gratissimum on uterus of Guinea pig. BioResearch 2005; 3, 40-4.
VTP Vinod and RB Sashidhar. Surface morphology, chemical and structural assignment of gum Kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium DC): An exudates tree gum in India. Ind. J. Nat. Prod. Res. 2010; 1, 181-92.
M Xiaodong and P Marek. Intrinsic viscosities and Huggins constants of Guar gum in alkali metal chloride solutions. Carbohydr. Chem. 2007; 10, 15-24.
DK Setua, R Awasthi, S Kumar, M Prasad and K Agarwal. Scanning Electron Microscopy of Natural Rubber Surfaces: Quantitative Statistical and Spectral Texture Analysis using Digital Image Processing. In: A Méndez-Vilas and J Díaz (eds.). Microscopy: Science, Technology, Applications and Education, Formatex, Spain, 2010
IL Acevedo and M Katz.Viscosities and thermodynamics of viscous flow of some binary mixtures at different temperatures. J. Solution Chem. 1990; 19, 1041-52.
S Al-Assaf, GO Phillips and PA Williams. Studies on Acacia exudates gums: part II, Molecular weight comparison of the Vulgares and Gummiferae series of Acacia gums. Food Hydrocolloid. 2005; 19, 661-7.
J Higiro, TJ Herals, S Alvi and S Bean. Rheological study of xanthan and locust bean gum interaction in dilute solution: Effect of salt. Food Res. Int. 2007; 49: 435-47.
ML Huggins. The viscosity of dilute solution of long chain molecules IV. Dependence on concentration. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1942; 64, 2716-8.
K Pamies, JGH Cifre, MC Martinez and JG de la Torre. Determination of intrinsic viscosities of macromolecules and nanoparticles.Comparison of single-point and dilution procedures. Colloid Polym. Sci. 2008; 286, 1223-31.
PO Ameh, NO Eddy and CE Gimba. Physiochemical and Rheological Studies on Some Natural Polymers and Their Potentials as Corrosion Inhibitors. Lambert Academic Publishing, UK, 2012.
TD Chou and JL Kokini. Rheological properties and conformation of tomato paste pectins, citrus and apple pectins. J. Food Sci. 1987; 52, 1658-64.
T Taglertpaibul and MA Rao. Intrinsic viscosity of tomato serum as affected by methods of determination and methods of processing concentrates. J. Food Sci. 1987; 32, 1642-88.
ER Morris, AN Cutler, SB Ross-Murphy, DA Ress and J Price. Concentration and shear rate dependence of viscosity in random coil polysaccharide solutions. Carbohydr. Polym. 1981; 1, 5-21.
R Lapasin and S Pricl. Rheology of Polysaccharide Systems. In: R Lapasin and S Pricl (eds.). Rheology of industrial polysaccharides: Theory and applications Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow, 1995, p. 250-494.
AS Eissa. Newtonian viscosity behavior of dilute solutions of polymerized whey proteins. Would viscosity measurements reveal more detail molecular properties? Food Hydrocolloid. 2013; 30, 200-5.
EP Varfolomeeva, VY Grinberg and VB Toistogusov. Rheology of polymer. Polym. Bull. 1980; 2, 613-8.
AG Silva, JF Rodrigues and RCM de Paula. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (Anadenanthera Macrocarpa Benth). Polimeros 1998; 4, 34-9.
FD Sanin. Effect of solution physical chemistry on the rheological properties of activated sludge. Water SA 2002; 28, 207-12.
S Asokan, KM Krueger, A Alkhawaldeh, AR Carreon, Z Mu, VL Colvin, NV Mantzaris and MS Wong. The use of heat transfer fluids in the synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots, core/shell quantum dots, and quantum rods. Nanotechnology 2005; 16, 2000-11.
S Yageswari, S Ramakakshmi, R Neelavathy and J Muthumary. Identification and comparative studies studied of different volatile fractions from Monochaetia kansensis by GCMS. Global J. Pharmacol. 2012; 6, 65-71.
GL Darmstadt, M Mao-Qiang, E Chi, SK Saha, VA Ziboh, RE Black, M Santosham and PM Elias. Impact of topical oils on the skin barrier: possible implications for neonatal health in developing countries. Acta Paediatr. 2002; 91, 546-54.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.