Application of Alkaline Pulping to Pruned Branches of Citrus limon from Sudan


  • Tarig KHIDER College of Applied and Industrial Sciences, University of Bahri, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Safaa OMER College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Bahri, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Osman ELZAKI Cellulose Chemistry and Technology Research Unit, National Centre of Research, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Salaheldin MOHIELDIN Cellulose Chemistry and Technology Research Unit, National Centre of Research, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Suhair SHOMEINA Cellulose Chemistry and Technology Research Unit, National Centre of Research, Khartoum, Sudan



Cirtus limon, Physical properties, Chemical composition, Alkaline cooking, Guar gum


This study aims to utilize the pruned branches of Citrus limon in pulping with alkaline pulping methods and to determine the suitability of guar gum to improve the strength properties of pulps and limitations of cutting trees for environmental issues and utilization of lemon branches as horticultural residues. These branches’ physical properties exhibited high medium density and very low percentages of bark to wood ratio. The whole chemical components of these raw materials indicated the suitability to a pulp with alkaline cooking methods. In addition, alkaline sulfite anthraquinone with methanol methods gave excellent screened yield (60.1 %), negligible rejects, bleachable Kappa number 19.5, and best strength properties, especially tensile and strengths. Alkaline sulfite with anthraquinone gave excellent screened yield with a small percentage of rejects and bleachable Kappa number. On the other hand, soda cooking produced pulps with acceptable yield (41.9 %), rejects (3 %), and suitable strengths. The soda anthraquinone pulping methods produced pulp with good yields (56 - 59.7 %). Obviously, anthraquinone’s effect in preserving carbohydrates, specifically hemicelluloses, increases the yields and strengths. Guar gum improved pulps’ physical properties when added during beating with (0.25 % on oven-dry Soda-AQ pulps). It clears Citrus limon branches’ suitability with an age of 2 years in cooking with all alkaline pulping methods applied.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


JH Crane. Lemon growing in the Florida home landscape. UF/IFAS Extension 2019; 1, 1-12.

L Abbate, F Mercati and SFD Bosco. An overview on citrus mal secco disease: Approaches and strategies to select tolerant genotypes in C. limon. Crop Breed. Genet. Genom. 2019; 1, 1-29.

M Mohanapriya, L Ramaswamy and R Rajendran. Health and medicinal properties of lemon (Citrus Limonum). Int. J. Ayurvedic Herb. Med. 2013; 3, 1095-100.

M Pal. Lemon: A versatile fruit of multiple uses. Agric. World 2017; 3, 52-4.

T Zhou, YJ Zhang, DP Xu, F Wang, Y Zhou, J Zheng, Y Li, JJ Zhang and HB Li. Protective effects of lemon juice on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Biomed. Res. Int. 2017; 2017, 746351.

NS Dosoky and WN Setzer. Biological activities and safety of Citrus spp. essential oils. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018; 19, 1966.

S Rafiq, R Kaul, SA Sofi, N Bashir, F Nazir and GA Nayik. Citrus peel as a source of functional ingredient: A review. J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. 2018; 17, 351-8.

AS Kefi, C Chama, L Kalumba, I Bbole, P Chungu and M Mbambara. Vitamin C levels in lemons (Citrus Limon) grown in Zambia; an opportunity for utilization in fish feeds. J. Agric. Life Sci. 2016; 3, 37-42.

MG Veldhuizen, A Siddique, S Rosenthal and LE Marks. Interactions of lemon, sucrose and citric acid in enhancing citrus, sweet and sour flavors. Chem. Senses 2017; 43, 17-26.

DPH Tucker, TA Wheaton and RP Muraro. Citrus tree pruning principles and practices. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, 1994.

F Intrigliolo and G Roccuzzo. Modern trends of Citrus pruning in Italy. Adv. Hort. Sci. 2011; 25, 187-92.

B Martin-Gorriz, IP Castillo and A Torregrosa. Effect of mechanical pruning on the yield and quality of ‘Fortune’ madarins. Span. J. Agric. Res. 2014; 12, 952-9.

SR Patil, SM Bichkule and AM Sonkamble. Effect of severity and time of pruning on growth, flowering and fruit set of hasta bahar in acid lime. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 2018; S6, 968-74.

AJ Krajewskia and SA Krajewski. Canopy management of sweet orange, grapefruit, lemon, lime and mandarin trees in the tropics: Principles, practices and commercial experiences. Acta Hort. 2011; 894, 65-76.

A Tutu, M Cicekler and N Kucukbey. Pulp and paper production from bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) woods with Soda-AQ method. Kastamonu Univ. Orman Fak. Derg. 2016; 16, 14-8.

D Mudgil, S Barak and BS Khatkar. Guar gum: Processing, properties and food applications-A Review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2014; 51, 409-18.

SJ Yoon, DC Chu and LR Juneja. Chemical and physical properties, safety and application of partially hydrolized guar gum as dietary fiber. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 2008; 42, 17-7.

K Yu, D Wong, J Parasrampuria and D Friend. Guar gum: Analytical profiles of drug substances and excipients. Vol 24. Elseviers, 1996, p. 243-76.

TD Bradley, A Ball, SE Harding and JR Mitchell. Thermal degradation of guar gum. Carbohydr. Polym. 1989; 10, 205-14.

TAPPI. Standards and suggested methods. TAPPI, New York. Available at:, accessed June 2020.

British Standards B.S. 373.1957. The British Standard Methods of Testing Small Clear Specimens of Timber. British Standards Institute, London. Available at:, accessed June 2020.

AV Obolenskaya, VP Tshegolov, GI Akim, NC Kossoviz, NL Emelyannova and IZ Practitcheshie. Raboti po Himii Drevesinii Tzellulozi (in Russian). Lesporm, Moscow, Russia, 1965.

O Kordsachia, B Wandianger and R Patt. Some investigation on ASAM pulping and chlorine free bleaching of eucalyptus from spain. Holz Roh. Werkst. 1992; 50, 85-91.

H Holton. Soda additives softwood pulping: A major new process. Pulp Paper Can. 1977; 78, T218-T223.

P Khristova, S Gabir, S Bentcheva and T Khider. Soda-AQ pulping of four Acacias from Sudan. Cell. Chem. Technol. 1998; 32, 299-307.

ISO Standards. International Organization for Standardization. Available at:, accessed June 2020.

PT Bin. Present status of pulping and papermaking research with special reference to possible utilization of tropical hardwoods. In: Proceedings of the Malaysian Forestry Conference. Malaysia. 1970.

J Casey. Pulp and paper chemistry and chemical technology. Vol I. Interscience Publications, New York, 1980.

P Khristova, O Kordsachia and T Khider. Alkaline pulping with additives of date palm rachis and leaves from Sudan. Bioresour. Technol. 2005; 96, 79-85.

SH Omer, TO Khider, OT Elzaki, SD Mohieldin and SK Shomeina. Application of soda-AQ pulping to agricultural waste (okra stalks) from Sudan. BMC Chem. Eng. 2019; 1, 1-6.

TO Khider, OT Elzaki and SH Omer. Soda and soda-AQ pulping of Albizia lebbeck from Sudan. Suranaree J. Sci. Technol. 2011; 18, 299-30.

TO Khider, SH Omer and OT Elzaki. Pulping and totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching of Acacia mellifera from Sudan. World Appl. Sci. J. 2012; 16, 1256-61.

SR Masrol, MHI Ibrahim, S Adnan, MR Talib and L Sian. Effect of Soda-Athraqunione pulping variables on durian rind pulp and paper characteristics: A preliminary test. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2017; 226, 1-10.

MS Jahan, M Sarkar and MA Quaiyyum. Pulping of gamari roots (Gmelina arborea). J. Indian Acad. Wood Sci. 2018; 15, 28-32.




How to Cite

KHIDER, T. ., OMER, S. ., ELZAKI, O. ., MOHIELDIN, S. ., & SHOMEINA, S. . (2021). Application of Alkaline Pulping to Pruned Branches of Citrus limon from Sudan. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 18(7), Article 9409 (8 pages).