Synergistic Antibacterial Potentials of Ocimum gratissimum, Honey and Ciprofloxacin against some Multiple Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Stool Samples


  • Oluwatoyosi Ezekiel OLAWALE Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
  • Olubukola OLUSOLA-MAKINDE Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
  • Muftau Kolawole OLADUNMOYE Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria



Synergism, Antibacterial, Ocimum gratissimum L., Honey, Ciprofloxacin


This study investigated the synergistic antibacterial potentials of Ocimum gratissimum (O. gratissimum) leaf acetone extract, honey, and ciprofloxacin against some multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates from stool samples of diarrhea patients and their typed cultures were subjected to inhibitory assay by mixtures of extract and honey, extract and ciprofloxacin, honey and ciprofloxacin, and extract, honey and ciprofloxacin using tube dilution method. Killing rate and mechanisms of action of the mixtures on the susceptible pathogens were determined. The multiple antibiotic resistance indices of the test organisms (MARI) ranged from 0.7 to 1.0. Extract, honey, and ciprofloxacin mixture at ratio 1:1:1 exerted the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration on E. coli, P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145, E. coli ATCC 25922, and S. typhi ATCC 14028 at 1.56×10-3 mg/mL compared with ciprofloxacin (3.13×10-3 mg/mL). Highest potassium, sodium, and protein leakage was induced by extract and honey mixture (97.4 cmol/g) in E. coli, extract, honey, and ciprofloxacin mixture (65.2 cmol/g) in B. cereus, and extract, honey, and ciprofloxacin mixture (21.6 mg/mL) in B. cereus, respectively. Extract, honey, and ciprofloxacin mixture exerted highest killing rate on B. cereus after 24 h (1.3×101 cfu/mL). These findings revealed a high synergistic antibacterial potential of O. gratissimum leaf acetone extract, honey, and ciprofloxacin against multiple drug-resistant bacteria, thus, implying their potential use in diarrhea treatment.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


JM Willey, LM Sherwood and CJ Woolverton. Prescott’s microbiology. 8th ed. New York, McGraw Hill, 2011, p. 826-9.

FO Omoya and KO Ajayi. Synergistic effect of combined antibiotics against some selected multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacteria isolated from poultry droppings in Akure, Nigeria. Adv. Microbiol. 2016; 6, 1075-90.

A Saini, B Singh, A Suttee, S Verma, LK Garg and S Thakur. A review on phytoconstituents: The potent synergistic approach in antimicrobial formulations. J. Pharm. Res. 2018; 12, 151-9.

OO Amengialue, O Edobor and AP Egharevba. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Ocimum gratissimum on bacteria associated with diarrhea. Bayero J. Pure Appl. Sci. 2013; 6, 143-5.

IU Nwankwo, CE Onwakor and OJ James. Synergistic effect of the combined ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola and Ocimum gratissimum on Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nat. Pharm. Tech. 2015; 5, 1-9.

S Pandey. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Ocimum gratissimum L. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2017; 9, 26-31.

N Namias. Honey in the management of infections. Surg. Infect. 2003; 4, 219-26.

CM Nwankwo, CC Ezekoye and SO Igbokwe. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of apiary honey produced by honey bee (Apis mellifera) on clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2014; 13, 2367-72.

TT Adebolu. Effect of natural honey on local isolates of diarrhea-causing bacteria in southwestern Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2005; 4, 1172-4.

EI Chukwura and IA Iheukwumere. Determination of synergistic effect and activity index of Solenostemon monostachyus and Ocimum gratissimum on selected bacteria. Nig. J. Microbiol. 2012; 26, 2492-8.

S Khan, M Imran, M Imran and N Pindari. Antimicrobial activity of various ethanolic plant extracts against pathogenic multi drug resistant Candida spp. Bioinformation 2017; 13, 67 72.

MY Liu, NN Cokcetin, J Lu, L Turnbull, DA Carter, CB Whitchurch and EJ Harry. Rifampicin-Manuka honey combinations are superior to other antibiotic-manuka combinations in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Front. Microbiol. 2018; 8, 1-12.

A Gaurav, SP Singh, JPS Gill, R Kumar and D kumar. Isolation and identification of Shigella spp. from human fecal samples collected from Pantnagar, India. Vet. World 2013; 6, 367-79.

MK Ladipo, VF Doherty and UC Kanife. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial investigation of the extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent leaf) on selected enterobacteriaceae. Product. Agric. Tech. 2010; 6, 75-84.

MO Ubafie and AU Ejale. Antimicrobial activity and quantitative analysis of Ocimum gratissimum on some pathogenic bacteria. Issues Bio. Sci. Pharm. Res. 2018; 6, 17-22.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: Twenty-fourth informational supplement. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, USA, 2014, p. 110-40.

AI Akinyemi and AO Ogundare. Antibacterial properties of the leaf of Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev on some pathogenic organisms. Eur. J. Med. Plants 2014; 4, 75-85.

SC Onuoha. The prevalence of antibiotic resistant diarrhogenic bacterial species in surface waters, south eastern Nigeria. Ethiop. J. Health Sci. 2017; 27, 319-30.

MB Odebisi-Omokanye, TO Agbabiaka, RF Zakriya and O Sanya. Antibacterial effect of Ocimum gratissimum against bacteria from paediatrics diarrhoeal stool samples in the tropics. J. Sci. Tech. 2016; 36, 64-74.

JE Amadi, SO Salami and CS Eze. Antifungal properties and phytochemical screening of extracts of African Basil (Ocimum gratissimum L.) Agr. Biol. J. N. Amer. 2010; 1, 163-6.

EI Nweze and EE Eze. Justification for the use of Ocimum gratissimum L. in herbal medicine and its interaction with disc antibiotics. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2009; 9, 31-7.

O Stefanovic, L Comic, D Stanojevic and S Solujic-Sukdolak. Antibacterial activity of Aegopodium podagraria L. extracts and interaction between extracts and antibiotics. Turk. J. Biol. 2009; 33, 145-50.

MK Oladunmoye, FA Akinyosoye and FC Adetuyi. Comparative studies on the amount of protein, sodium and potassium ions released by methanolic extracts from six Cassia species. Asian J. Cell Biol. 2007; 2, 29-33.

KA Oyeniran, MK Oladunmoye and HO Aladeselu. Comparative studies in the release of sodium and potassium ions by indigenous black soap from selected skin pathogens. Res. J. Microbiol. 2015; 10, 592-9.

MK Oladunmoye. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging capacity and antimicrobial activities of Miranilis jalapa. J. Med. Plant Res. 2012; 6, 2909-13.




How to Cite

OLAWALE, O. E. ., OLUSOLA-MAKINDE, O. ., & OLADUNMOYE, M. K. . (2021). Synergistic Antibacterial Potentials of Ocimum gratissimum, Honey and Ciprofloxacin against some Multiple Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Stool Samples. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 18(9), Article 9192 (15 pages).