Solar PV Tree: Shade-Free Design and Cost Analysis Considering Indian Scenario


  • Varaprasad JANAMALA Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, School of Engineering and Technology, Christ University, Karnataka, Bangalore 560 074, India



Solar PV system, Rooftop solar PV system, Solar PV tree, Techno-economic analysis


In this paper, the performance and the cost-effectiveness of a solar PV tree for supplying the energy demand of a flood lighting system at a basketball court in the School of Engineering and Technology, Christ (Deemed to be University) at Bangalore, India, are analyzed. Also, the energy demand of a flood lighting system for year 2017 is estimated (16 kWh/day), and the design of 4 individual trees of 1 kWp each is proposed, which saves around 40 sq.m area of land near to the basketball court. The experimental data was collected from June 1st, 2018 to May 31st, 2019, using a data acquisition system and processed to calculate the monthly cost of energy produced by each tree. In order to reduce the complexity in design and allow it to be shade-free, all the panels of a tree were oriented at the same azimuth angle. Based on technical and economical assessments with respect to rooftop systems, the solar PV tree presented reasonable results and could be a future adoptable technology for high population density areas, as well as for remote applications. Later, the adoptability of the proposed solar PV tree was simulated for 2 kWp, considering the climatic conditions of 2020, for different rural and urban locations of India. From the techno-economic-environmental analysis, it is highlighted that the annual energy yield is more with the solar PV tree model than with a land-mounted SPV system. The cost savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction are also higher with the proposed oak tree-based solar PV tree in urban areas than in rural areas recommending it for practical applications.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Year End Review 2018. MNRE, India, Available at: d=186228, accessed August 2019.

MNRE-4-Year-Achievement. Available at:, accessed May 2019.

P Mohanty and T Muneer. Smart design of stand-alone solar PV system for off grid electrification projects. In: S Bhattacharyya and D Palit (Eds.). Mini-grids for rural electrification of developing countries. Green Energy and Technology. Springer, Cham, 2014, p. 63-93.

P Mohanty and M Gujar. PV component selection for off-grid applications. In: P Mohanty, T Muneer and ML Kolhe (Eds.). Solar photovoltaic system applications: A guidebook for off-grid electrification. Springer, Cham, 2016, p. 85-106.

P Debajit and S Malhotra. Energizing rural India using micro grids: The case of solar DC micro-grids in Uttar Pradesh State, India. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference: Micro Perspectives for Decentralized Energy Supply, Bangalore, India, 2015.

V Ani. Feasibility analysis and simulation of a stand-alone photovoltaic energy system for electricity generation and environmental sustainability - equivalent to 650Va fuel-Powered generator - popularly known as “I pass my neighbour”. Front. Energ. Res. 2015; 3, 1-8.

S Ahsan, K Javed, AS Rana and M Zeeshan, Design and cost analysis of 1 kW photovoltaic system based on actual performance in Indian scenario. Perspect. Sci. 2016; 8, 642-4.

M Chandel, GD Agrawal, S Mathur and A Mathur. Techno-economic analysis of solar photovoltaic power plant for garment zone of Jaipur city. Case Stud. Therm. Eng. 2014; 2, 1-7.

DO Akinyele and RK Rayudu. Comprehensive techno-economic and environmental impact study of a localised photovoltaic power system (PPS) for off-grid communities. Energ. Convers. Manage. 2016; 124, 266-79.

A Chaurey and TC Kandpal. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids. Energ. Policy 2010; 38, 3118-29.

S Bhakta and V Mukherjee. Performance indices evaluation and techno economic analysis of photovoltaic power plant for the application of isolated India’s island. Sustain. Energ. Technol. Assess. 2017; 20, 9-24.

KR Sharma, D Palit and PR Krithika. Economics and management of off-grid solar PV system. In: P Mohanty, T Muneer and M Kolhe (Eds.). Solar photovoltaic system applications. Green Energy and Technology. Springer, Cham, 2016, p. 137-64.

JK Verma and RS Dondapati. Techno-economic sizing analysis of solar PV system for domestic refrigerators. Energ. Proc. 2017; 109, 286-92.

PM Dauenhauer and FF Damien. Sustainability analysis off-grid community solar PV projects in Malawi. In: Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference, Seattle, WA, USA. 2016.

HA Kazem, T Khatib, K Sopian and W Elmenreich. Performance and feasibility assessment of a 1.4 kW roof top grid-connected photovoltaic power system under desertic weather conditions. Energ. Build. 2014; 82, 123-9.

HA Kazem, T Khatib and K Sopian. Sizing of a standalone photovoltaic/battery system at minimum cost for remote housing electrification in Sohar, Oman. Energ. Build. 2013; 61, 108-15.

S Gupta. Quantum solar tree- design and production for domestic applications and future trends. Int. J. Appl. Res. 2017; 3, 439-44.

E Duque, A Isaza, P Ortiz, S Chica, A Lujan and J Molina. Urban sets innovation: Design of a solar tree PV system for charging mobile devices in Medellin-Colombia. In: Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 6th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications, San Diego, CA, 2017, p. 495-8.

N Rawat and P Singh. An overview of comparison between 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional solar cell arrangements. Int. J. Eng. Res. Gen. Sci. 2015; 3, 195-9.

F Hyder, P Baredar, K Sudhakar and R Mamat. Performance and land footprint analysis of a solar photovoltaic tree. J. Clean. Prod. 2018; 187, 432-48.

F Hyder, K Sudhakar and R Mamat. Solar PV tree design: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 2018; 82, 1079-96.

Official Website of Bharat Heavy Electricals. Available at: tender_files/20150613/NIT_22941/technical-spec-1434181055.pdf, accessed May 2019.

Green Ice Solutions Private. Available at:, accessed April 2019.

Spotlight Solar. Available at:, accessed May 2019.

REL’s PVWatts® Calculator. Available at:, accessed April 2019.

Solar Rooftop Calculator. Available at:, accessed May 2019.

Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator. Available at:, accessed May 2019.

H Khorramdel, B Khorramdel and M Poshtyafteh. Programming of energy storage system in an island microgrid with photovoltaic and fuel cell. Walailak J. Sci. Tech. 2014; 12, 93-105.




How to Cite

JANAMALA, V. . (2021). Solar PV Tree: Shade-Free Design and Cost Analysis Considering Indian Scenario. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 18(8), Article 8995 (9 pages).