Multi-hazard Risk Assessment Using GIS and RS Applications: A Case Study of Pak Phanang Basin



Droughts and floods are natural phenomena where risks of occurrence are likely to continue to grow in Pak Phanang Basin. In the southern east coast of Thailand, Pak Phanang Basin covers a total area of 308,000 hectares with a total population of approximately 600,000. In this paper, the risk of drought and flood using GIS and RS is assessed and effective risk assessment process for the studied area is identified. The findings reveal that approximately 75,815 hectares, or 25 % of the total land area, exhibited a high multi-hazard risk. However, approximately 120,737 and 82,710 hectares, equivalent to 39 % and 27 % of the total land area respectively, were estimated to be experiencing medium and low multi-hazard risk. Further analysis revealed that residential areas and shrimp farms, especially in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Huasai, and Pak Phanang Municipality, are under high multi-hazard risk, while agricultural land scattering over the basin is consistent with medium multi-hazard risk. Finally, the swamp, located in the southernmost zone of the basin in Cha-uat District, faces low multi-hazard risk. Moreover, this paper concludes with risk management strategies and public participation integrated with risk assessment.


Drought and flood hazards, geographic information system, risk assessment, remote sensing

Full Text:



Royal Irrigation Department. The Royally-initiated Pak Phanang River Basin Development Project. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Bangkok, 2003, p. 51-3.

J Ingleton. Natural disaster management. A presentation to commemorate the international decade for natural disaster reduction IDNDR 1990-2000. Tudor Rose, Leicester, 1999, p. 320-5.

JT Coppock. GIS and natural hazard: an overview from a GIS perspective. In: A Carrara and F Guzzetti (eds.). Geographical Information System in Assessing Natural Hazard. Kluwer Academic, Netherlands, 1995, p. 21-34.

MJ Clark. Putting water in its place: A perspective on GIS in hydrology and water management, Hydrol. Process. 1998, 12, 823-34.

P Hausmann and M Weber. Possible contributions of hydroinformatics to risk analysis in insurance. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Hydroinformatics, Zurich, Switzerland, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1988. p. 57-62.

D Alexander. Natural disasters. New York, Chapman and Hall, 1993. p. 23-39

USPCC RARM. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management, Final Report Volume 1, US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, Washington DC, 1997. p. 69-75

T Glade. Ranging scales in spatial landslide hazard and risk analysis. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Risk Analysis, Brebbia CA (ed.). Sintra, Portugal, 2002, p. 719-29.

C Tanavud, C Yongchalermchai, A Bennui and O Densrisereekul. Assessment of flood risk in Hat Yai Municipality, Southern Thailand, using GIS. J. Nat. Disaster Sci. 2004; 26, 1-14.

JV DeGraff. Landslide activity resulting from the November 1988 storm events in southern Thailand and associated resource recovery needs. In: Safeguarding the Future. Restoration and Development in the South of Thailand. Jiramedha Advertising and Printing, Bangkok. 1989, p. 1-43.

NC Francisco, F Maureen, GS Maria and B Fatima. Flood hazard assessment and management: Interface with the public. Water Resour. Manag. 1998; 12, 209-27.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

Last updated: 12 August 2019