Quality Assessment and In Vitro Anti-diabetic Activity of Thunbergia laurifolia Stems and Leaves


  • Parichart HONGSING Public Health Sciences Program, College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
  • Chanida PALANUVEJ Public Health Sciences Program, College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
  • Nijsiri RUANGRUNGSI Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, College of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pathum Thani 12000, Thailand




Thunbergia laurifolia, Rosmarinic acid, α-glucosidase inhibition, TLC-densitometric method, TLC-image analysis


The study aimed to evaluate pharmacognostic parameters for standardization of raw materials, Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. (family: Thunbergiaceae) stems and leaves, as well as their active phytochemical (rosmarinic acid) contents. The antidiabetic potential was evaluated by yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity using p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Dried stems and leaves of Thunbergia laurifolia were collected from 15 different locations in Thailand. The microscopic anatomical and histological characteristics of stem and leaf were illustrated. The physico-chemical contents, including loss on drying, acid-insoluble ash, total ash, ethanol-soluble extractives, water-soluble extractives, and moisture of dried stems and leaves, were established. TLC-densitometry of rosmarinic acid in dried T. laurifolia stems and leaves were developed and revealed contents of 0.120 ± 0.079 and 0.291 ± 0.150 g per 100 g, respectively. Similarly, TLC-image analysis by ImageJ showed contents of 0.127 ± 0.094 and 0.303 ± 0.162 g per 100 g respectively (p > 0.05). Both quantitative TLC demonstrated their validity due to specificity, accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and robustness. The antidiabetic potential of rosmarinic acid, T. laurifolia leaf and stem ethanolic extracts, and acarbose (positive control) exhibited IC50 of 0.31, 0.80, 5.89, and 1.48 mg/ml, respectively.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


RW Scotland and KB Vollesen. Classification of acanthaceae. Kew Bull. 2000; 55, 513-89.

W Thongsaard, C Marsden, P Morris, M Prior and Y Shah. Effect of Thunbergia laurifolia, a Thai natural product used to treat drug addiction, on cerebral activity detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging in the rat. Psychopharmacology 2005; 180, 752-60.

A Ramachandran, C Snehalatha, AS Shetty and A Nanditha. Trends in prevalence of diabetes in Asian countries. World J. Diabetes 2012; 3, 110-7.

S Aritajat, S Wutteerapol and K Saenphet. Anti-diabetic effect of Thunbergia laurifolia Linn. aqueous extract. Asian J. Trop. Med. Pub. Health 2004; 35, 53-8.

N Pitoolpong, S Kanthawat, S Thaipradist and R Singh. Effect of Thunbergia laurifolia Linn. extract in hyperglycemic cats. The Veterinary Practitioner Association of Thailand (VPAT). In: Processings of the 8th VPAT Regional Veterinary Congress, Thailand. 2014, p. 23-6.

T Kanchanapoom, R Kasai and K Yamasaki. Iridoid glucosides from Thunbergia laurifolia. Phytochemistry 2002; 60, 769-71.

D Zhang, YL Gao, S Jiang, Y Chen, Y Zhang and Z Pan. The similarity and variability of the iridoid glycoside profile and antioxidant capacity of aerial and underground parts of Lamiophlomis rotata according to UPLC-TOF-MS and multivariate analyses. RSC Adv. 2018; 8, 2459-68.

P Suwanchaikasem, C Chaichantipyuth and S Sukrong. Antioxidant-guided Isolation of rosmarinic acid, a major constituent from Thunbergia laurifolia, and its use as a bioactive marker for standardization. Chiang Mai J. Sci. 2014; 41, 117-27.

AG. Adomako-Bonsu, SLF Chan, M Pratten and JR Fry. Antioxidant activity of rosmarinic acid and its principal metabolites in chemical and cellular systems: Importance of physico-chemical characteristics. Toxicol. In Vitro 2017; 40, 248-55.

W Boonyarikpunchai, S Sukrong and P Towiwat. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of rosmarinic acid isolated from Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. Pharmacol. Biochem. Be 2014; 124, 67-73.

A Zdařilová, A Svobodová, V Šimánek and J Ulrichová. Prunella vulgaris extract and rosmarinic acid suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced alteration in human gingival fibroblasts. Toxicol. In Vitro 2009; 23, 386-92.

A Abedini, V Roumy, S Mahieux, M Biabiany, A Standaert-Vitse, C Rivière, S Sahpaz, F Bailleul, T Hennebelle and C Neut. Rosmarinic acid and its methyl ester as antimicrobial components of the hydromethanolic extract of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae). Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2013; 2013, 11.

MA Furtado, LCF de Almeida, RA Furtado, WR Cunha and DC Tavares. Antimutagenicity of rosmarinic acid in Swiss mice evaluated by the micronucleus assay. Mutat. Res. Gen. Tox. En. 2008; 657, 150-4.

J Runtuwene, KC Cheng, A Asakawa, H Amitani, M Amitani, A Morinaga, Y Takimoto, BHR Kairupan and A Inui. Rosmarinic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats, potentially by modulating the expression of PEPCK and GLUT4. Drug Des. Devel. Ther. 2016; 10, 2193-202.

B Ladva, V Mahida, U Kantaria and R Gokani. Marker based standardization of polyherbal formulation (SJT-DI-02) by high performance thin layer chromatography method. J. Pharm. Bioallied. Sci. 2014; 6, 213-9.

M Khan, W Khan, W Ahmad, M Singh and S Ahmad. Bergenin determination in different extracts by high-performance thin-layer chromatographic densitometry. J. Pharm. Bioallied. Sci. 2015; 7, 272-4.

Guideline on declaration of herbal substances and herbal preparations in herbal medicinal products /traditional herbal medicinal products, Available at: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/ document_library/Scientific_guideline/2009/09/WC500003272.pdf, accessed August 2018.

World Health Organization. Quality Control Methods for Herbal Materials. WHO Press, Malta, 2011, p. 1-10.

ICH Expert Working Group. Validation of analytical procedures: Text and methodology Q2(R1). In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Yogohama, Japan, 2005, p. 1-13.

S Carlquist and S Zona. Wood anatomy of Acanthaceae: A survey. Aliso 1988; 12, 201-27.

MJD Baño, J Lorente, J Castillo, O Benavente-García, JAD Río, A Ortuño, KW Quirin and D Gerard. Phenolic diterpenes, flavones, and rosmarinic acid distribution during the development of leaves, flowers, stems and roots of rosmarinus officinalis. antioxidant activity. J. Agri. Food Chem. 2003; 51, 4247-53.

F Zhu, T Asada, A Sato, Y Koi, H Nishiwaki and H Tamura. Rosmarinic acid extract for antioxidant, antiallergic, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, isolated by supramolecular technique and solvent extraction from perilla leaves. J. Agri. Food Chem. 2014; 62, 885-92.




How to Cite

HONGSING, P. ., PALANUVEJ, C. ., & RUANGRUNGSI, N. . (2020). Quality Assessment and In Vitro Anti-diabetic Activity of Thunbergia laurifolia Stems and Leaves . Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 17(8), 776–787. https://doi.org/10.48048/wjst.2020.5942