Estimating Child Death from Perinatal Originating Conditions and Congenital Malformations in Thailand

Binita Kumari Paudel, Apiradee Lim, Arjun Mani Guragain, Jagadish Paudel


The objective of this study is to examine the correctness of reported causes of deaths in children, to estimate deaths from perinatal originating conditions (ICD-10, chapter block P) and congenital malformations (ICD-10, chapter block Q) in Thailand. The subset of Thai deaths of children under 5 years old (149 from a total of 9964 deaths) in a 2005 Verbal Autopsy (VA) study was selected as a sample from 1996 – 2009, was used as the target population for this study. Three different logistic regression models were fitted for three outcomes of interest: deaths from Perinatal Originating Conditions (POC), deaths from Congenital Malformations (CM) and from other causes including the effects of the province, sex and the location of death. This study found no difference in the probability of dying from the POC and CM by sex and province. As expected, the study found significant differences in reporting the correct causes of death inside and outside the hospital. Nearly 90% of deaths from both POC and CM that occurred in the hospital were reported correctly. In contrast, only 60% and 70%, of these causes of deaths that occurred outside the hospital, were reported correctly. The number of child deaths from POC in the 14 year period was estimated at 36 838 and from CM was estimated at 26 806. These estimations of deaths from POC are 1.49 times more and from CM are 2.18 times higher than those numbers actually reported.


: perinatal originating condition, congenital malformation, verbal autopsy, logistic regression, Thailand


United Nations Development Group. Thematic paper on MDG 4,5 and 6. 2010. Available from:

JE Lawn, K Wilczynska-Ketende and SN Cousens. Estimating the causes of 4 million neonatal deaths in the year 2000. International journal of epidemiology. 2006; 35, 706-18.

J Bryce, C Boschi-Pinto, K Shibuya, RE Black and WHO Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. WHO estimates of the causes of death in children. The Lancet. 2005; 365, 1147-52.

C Rao, Y Porapakkham, J Pattaraarchachai, W Polprasert, N Swampunyalert and AD Lopez. Verifying causes of death in Thailand: rationale and methods for empirical investigation. Population health metrics. 2010; 8, 11.

V Tangcharoensathien, P Faramnuayphol, W Teokul, K Bundhamcharoen and S Wibulpholprasert. A critical assessment of mortality statistics in Thailand: potential for improvements. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006; 84, 233-8.

Y Porapakkham, C Rao, J Pattaraarchachai, W Polprasert, T Vos, T Adair, et al. Estimated causes of death in Thailand, 2005: implications for health policy. Population Health Metrics. 2010; 8, 14.

M Anker, RE Black, C Coldham, HD Kalter, MA Quigley, D Ross, et al. A Standard Verbal Autopsy Method for Investigating Causes of Death in Infants and Children 2007, Accessed from

AC Lee, LC Mullany, JM Tielsch, J Katz, SK Khatry, SC LeClerq, et al. Verbal autopsy methods to ascertain birth asphyxia deaths in a community-based setting in southern Nepal. Pediatrics. 2008; 121, e1372-e80.

N Soleman, D Chandramohan and K Shibuya. Verbal autopsy: current practices and challenges. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006; 84, 239-45.

WHO. Verbal Autopsy standard: Ascertaining and attributing cause of death. World Health Organization (WHO). 2007.

J Pattaraarchachai, C Rao, W Polprasert, Y Porapakkham, W Pao-In, N Singwerathum, et al. Cause-specific mortality patterns among hospital deaths in Thailand: validating routine death certification. Population health metrics. 2010; 8, 12.

W Polprasert, C Rao, T Adair, J Pattaraarchachai, Y Porapakkham and AD Lopez. Cause-of-death ascertainment for deaths that occur outside hospitals in Thailand: application of verbal autopsy methods. Population Health Metrics. 2010; 8, 13.

A Chutinantakul, P Tongkumchum, K Bundhamcharoen and V Chongsuvivatwong. Correcting and estimating HIV mortality in Thailand based on 2005 verbal autopsy data focusing on demographic factors, 1996-2009. Population Health Metrics. 2014; 12, 25.

N Klinjun, A Lim and K Bundhamcharoen. A logistic regression model for estimating transport accident deaths using verbal autopsy data. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health. 2015; 27, 286-92.


Online ISSN: 2228-835X

Last updated: 12 August 2019