Effect of Cyanobacteria (Nostoc species) Extracts on Osteogenesis

Phatthilakorn Chamnanpuen, Veena Nukoolkarn, Sophon Sirisattha, Thanchanok Muangman

Abstract


This study focused on osteogenesis activities from cyanobacteria (Nostoc species), including cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell mineralization with osteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1). The four Nostoc species; N. parmelioides, N punctiforme, N. muscorum and N. paludosum were made axenic and cultured for a month. The ethanolic crude extracts were obtained by maceration extraction; the yield was in the range of 7.00%-10.00% (w/w). By using the TLC technique, it was observed that in all of the samples, there are phytochemical bands corresponding with β-carotene and chlorophyll a, which are used as standard compounds. As a result, all crude extracts had no toxic effect on osteoblast cells after being incubated for 24 and 48 hours with various concentrations (1-1,000 µg/mL), although they did not significantly promote osteoblast proliferation. In addition, it was found that 3 crude extracts (N. parmelioides, N punctiforme, and N. paludosum) also promoted osteoblast differentiation significantly after being induced for 9 days, whereas there was no difference between the relative cellular mineralization among treatment groups after being induced for 25 days. The potential ethanolic extracts on osteoblast cell differentiation were further partitioned by liquid-liquid extraction (hexane, dichloromethane and methanol parts), and were analyzed for osteoblast differentiation with ALP assay. All of the crude, hexane and dichloromethane extracts had a significantly higher effect of ALP activity than did methanol extract. In conclusion, our data suggested that the nonpolar potential major compound, which might correspond with carotenoids (β-carotene, xanthophyll and chlorophyll a) from Nostoc species, exhibited positive effects on osteoblast differentiation by increasing the alkaline phosphatase enzyme. 


Keywords


Nostoc species; cyanobacteria; bone formation; osteogenesis; osteoblast differentiation

References


Organization WH. 2004, WHO scientific group on the assessment of osteoporosis at primary health care level. Brussels, Belgium.

S Ozgocmen, H Kaya, E Fadillioglu, R Aydogan, and Z Yilmazb. Role of antioxidant systems, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2007; 295, 45-

C Aparicio and M-Pau Ginebra. In Biomineralization and Biomaterials, Woodhead Publishing,England, 2015, p. 129-46.

X Zeng, J Tian, L Cui, Y Wang, Y Su, X Zhou, and X He. The phenolics from the roots of Livistona chinensis show antioxidative and obsteoblast differentiation promoting activity. Molecules. 2014; 19, 263.

J-T Woo, T Yonezawa, and K Nagai. Phytochemicals that stimulate osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation. J. Oral Biosci. 2010; 52, 15-21.

MG de Morais, B da S Vaz, EG de Morais, and JAV Costa. Biologically active metabolites synthesized by microalgae. Bio. Med. Res. Int. 2015; 2015, 8357-61.

W D P Stewart. Some of aspects of structure and function in N2-fixinng cyanobacteria. Annu. Rev.

Microbiol. 1980; 34, 497-536.

SS Mohd Zeeshan, D Biswas, A Farooqui and M J Arif. Screening of selected cyanobacterial strains for phytochemical compounds and biological activities in vitro. Biochem. Cell. Arch. 2010; 10, 163-

M S Abdel Hameed, S H Hassan, R Mohammed and R Gamal. Isolation and characteriazation of antimicrobial active compounds from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune Vauch. J. Pure Appl. Microbiol. 2013; 7, 109-16.

M Ninomiya, H Satoh, Y Yamaguchi, H Takenaka, and M Koketsu. Antioxidative activity and chemical constituents of edible terrestrial alga Nostoc commune Vauch. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2011; 75, 2175-7.

SA Agger, F Lopez-Gallego, TR Hoye, and C Schmidt-Dannert. Identification of sesquiterpene synthases from Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 and Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. J. Bacteriol. 2008; 190, 6084-96.

MS Hashtroudi, Z Shariatmadari, H Riahi, and A Ghassempour. Analysis of Anabaena vaginicola and Nostoc calcicola from Northern Iran, as rich sources of major carotenoids. Food Chem. 2013;

, 1148-53.c

T Pathomwichaiwat, P Ochareon, N Soonthornchareonnon, Z Ali, I A Khan, and S Prathanturarug. Alkaline phosphatase activity-guided isolation of active compounds and new dammarane-type triterpenes from Cissus quadrangularis hexane extract. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2015; 160, 52-60.

N Wang, X Wang, W Cheng, H Cao, P Zhang, and L Qin. Puerarin promotes osteogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis in vitro. Chin med J. 2013; 8, 1-17

T W Goodwin.The natural and distribution of carotenoids in some blue-green algae. J. Gen.

Microbial. 1957; 17, 467-73

Y Nishide, Y Tousen, M Tadaishi, M Inada, C Miyaura, M C Kruger, and Y Ishimi. Combined Effects of soy isoflavones and beta-carotene on osteoblast differentiation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Publ. Health. 2015; 12, 13750-61.

J Dai, Y Li, H Zhou, J Chen, M Chen, and Z Xiao. Genistein promotion of osteogenic differentiation through BMP2/SMAD5/RUNX2 signaling. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 2013; 9, 1089-98.

V R Lopes, M Schmidtke, M H Fernandes, R Martins, and V Vasconcelos. Cytotoxicity in L929 fibroblasts and inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 Kupka by estuarine cyanobacteria extracts.

Toxicol. In Vitro. 2011; 25, 944-50

Y Yang, Y Park, D A Cassada, D D Snow, D G Rogers, and J Lee. In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kutzing and Spirulina plantensis. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2011; 49(7), 1560-4.

T Batsalova, D Moten, D Basheva, I teneva, and B Dzhamazov. In vitro cytotoxicity and antioxidative potential of Nostoc Microscopicum (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria). Toxicol. Forensic Med. 2016; 1, 9-

SC Manolagas. Birth and death of bone cells: basic regulatory mechanisms and implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis. Endocr. Rev. 2000; 21, 115–37.

R L Jilka, R S Weinstein, T Bellido, A M Parfitt, and S C Manolagas. Osteoblast programmed cell death (apoptosis): modulation by growth factors and cytokines. J. Bone. Miner. Res. 1998; 13, 793– 802.

M Li, N Amizuka, K Oda, K Tokunaga, T Ito, K Takeuchi, R Takegi, and T Maeda. et al. Histochemical evidence of the initial chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in the periosteum of a rib fracture model: implications of osteocyte involvement in periosteal chondrogenesis. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2004; 64, 330–42.

X Zeng, J Tian, K Cai, X Wu, Y Wang, Y Zheng, Y Su, and L Cui. Promoting osteoblast

differentiation by the flavanes from Huanghan Maofeng tea is linked to a reduction of oxidative stress.

Phytomedicine. 2014; 21, 217-24.

YE cho, E alcantara, S Kumaran, KH Son, HY Sohn, and JH Lee, et al. Red yeast rice stimulates osteoblast proliferation and increase alkaline phosphatase activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. Nutr Res. 2010; 30, 501-10.

S Uchiyama, and M Yamaguchi. β-cryptoxantin stimulates cell proliferation and transcriptional activity in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. . Int. J. Mol. Med. 2005; 15, 675-81.

S Uchiyama, and M Yamaguchi. β-cryptoxantin stimulated cell differentiation and mineralization in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 2005; 95, 1224-34.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/image012_400

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

http://wjst.wu.ac.th

Last updated: 20 June 2019