Aquaculture Potential of Climbing Perch, Anabas Testudineus, in Brackish Water


  • Piyapong CHOTIPUNTU School of Agricultural Technology, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80161
  • Piyathap AVAKUL Department of Fisheries, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Surin Campus, Surin 32000,


Climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, salinity, aquaculture


Climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, is a freshwater fish species commercially grown in Southeast Asian countries. This study investigated aspects of salinity on hatching viability and growth performance of climbing perch to use as a measure for aquaculture in brackish water. The experiments were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. The hormonal induction spawned eggs, and farm reared fry fish of an average body weight of 1.51 - 1.54 g were used in this study. The tested media were prepared using fresh seawater diluted with dechlorinated supplied tap water. It was found that hatching rates for the artificially fertilized eggs were 77 - 92 % in salinities of 0 - 4.5 ppt. The LC50 (24 h) was found to be 5.1 ppt. Hatching was not observed in salinities higher than 7.5 ppt. When fry were reared in different salinities for 40 days, they were found to grow best in salinity of 6.9 ppt. Normal growth rates were found in salinities up to 10.2 ppt. The fry stopped growing and gradually died off in salinities higher than 12.4 ppt. This study suggests that brackish water can potentially be used for climbing perch aquaculture. Saline water up to 4 ppt is practical for propagation of the fish. The fry climbing perch may be nurtured in brackish water of 6 - 7 ppt to obtain the best growth performance.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


C Vidthayanon. Peat Swamp Fishes of Thailand. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bangkok, 2002.

CC O’Neal and CR Weirich. Effect of Low Levels of Salinity on Production and Hematological Parameters of Channel Catfish Ictalurus Punctatus Reared in Multiple-Crop Ponds. In: Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts, 2001.

G Kibria, D Nugegoda, R Fairclough and P Lam. Effect of salinity on growth and nutrient retention in silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus (Mitchell 1838) (Teraponidae). J. Appl. Ichthyol. 1999; 15, 132-4.

P Routray and MD Routray. Growth potential of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Val. in saline water with an aquatic weed Potamogeton pectinatus as feed. Fishery technology. Society of Fisheries Technologists (India) 1997; 34, 7-10.

SK Garg. Brackish water carp culture in potentially waterlogged areas using animal wastes as pond fertilizers. Aquacult. Int. 1996; 4, 143-55.

D Qiu and K Qin. Influence of salinity on energy budgets of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). J. Fish. China/ Shuichan Xuebo 1995; 19, 35-42.

AS Konstantinov and VV Martynova. Effect of salinity fluctuations on energetics of juvenile fish. J. Ichthyol., Voprosy Ikhtiologii 1993; 33, 1-8.

SE Wardoyo. Effects of different salinity levels and acclimation regimes on survival, growth, and reproduction of three strains of Tilapia nilotica and a red Tilapia nilotica hybrid. Dissertation Abstracts International Part B: Science and Engineering 1991; 51, 77.

MR Meador and WE Kelso. Growth of large mouth bass in low-salinity environments. T. Am. Fish. Soc. 1990; 19, 545-52.

AI Payne, L Fishelson and Z Yaron. Estuarine and Salt Tolerant Tilapias. In: the First International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, Nazareth, Israel, 1983, p. 534-43.

K Falk. Growth performance of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) in FS 22 (1984 experiment). Fischerei-Forschung 1986; 24, 27-30.

P Chotipuntu. 2003, Salinity Sensitivity in Early Life Stages of an Australian Freshwater Fish, Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii Mitchell, 1838). Ph.D. Thesis. University of Canberra.

T Ryan and P Davies. Environmental effects of salinity and nutrients from salt disposal: approaches to the development of management criteria, Rep. No. 137. Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria, 1996.

HV Westernhagen. Sublethal Effects of Pollutants on Fish Eggs and Larvae. In: WS Hoar and DJ Randall (eds.). Fish Physiology Vol. 11, Academic Press, Inc., London, 1988, p. 253-346.

M Jobling. Environmental Biology of Fishes. Chapman & Hall, London, 1995.

EK Balon. The Theory of Saltatory Ontogeny and Life History Model Revisited. In: Balon EK (ed.). In Early Life History of Fishes, New Developmental, Ecological and Evolutionary Perspectives. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Boston, 1985, p. 13-28.

DL Nielsen and TJ Hillman. The status of research into the effects of dryland salinity on aquatic ecosystems: A discussion paper arising from a salinity workshop in Albury, NSW, on 13th December 1999. CRCFE technical report 4/2000, CRCFE, Canberra, 2000.

P Dendrinos and JP Thorpe. Effects of reduced salinity on growth and body composition in the European bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). Aquaculture 1985; 49, 333-58.

EOA Abud. Effects of salinity and weight on routine metabolism in the juvenile croaker, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823). J. Fish Biol. 1992; 40, 471-2.

R Guo, P Mather and MF Capra. Effect of salinity on the development of silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) eggs and larvae. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1993; 104A, 531-5.

NYS Woo and SP Kelly. Effects of salinity and nutritional status on growth and metabolism of Sparus sarba in a closed seawater system. Aquaculture 1995; 135, 229-38.

C Garcia, F Pozet and C Michel. Standardisation of experimental infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the agent of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss fry syndrome. Dis. Aquat. Organ. 2000; 42, 191-7.

W Ye, D Cheng and L Ma. Effects of ecological factors on fry of Tilapia sp. Transactions of Oceanology and Limnology/Haiyang Huzhao Tongbao, Qingdao 1990; 1, 57-63.

G De Boeck, H Smet and R Blust. The energy metabolism of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) when exposed to salt stress: an increase in energy expenditure or effects of starvation? Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 2000; 73, 102-11.

DH Secor, TE Gunderson and K Karlsson. Effect of temperature and salinity on growth performance in anadromous (Chesapeake Bay) and nonanadromous (Santee-Cooper) strains of striped bass, Morone saxatilis. Copeia, 2000, p. 291-6.

R Febry and P Lutz. Energy partitioning in fish: the activity related cost of osmoregulation in euryhaline cichlid. J. Fish Biol. 1987; 128, 63-85.

WTW Potts. The energetics of osmotic regulation in brackish- and fresh-water animals. J. Exp. Biol. 1954; 31, 618-30.

AK Kumaragura and M Kamalam. Effect of salinity on the proximate body composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Sp. Pub. Eur. Aquacult. 1991; 14, 176-7.

JD Morgan and GK Iwama. Effects of salinity on growth, metabolism, and ion regulation in juvenile rainbow and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1991; 48, 2083-94.

Y Lambert, JD Duntil and J Munro. Effects of intermediate and low salinity conditions on growth rate and food conversion of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1994; 51, 1569-76.

R Guo, PB Mather and MF Capra. Salinity tolerance and osmoregulation in silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus Mitchell (Teraponidae), an endemic Australian freshwater teleost. Mar. Freshwater Res. 1995; 46, 947-52.

J Chervinski. Salinity tolerance of young catfish, Clarias lazera. J. Fish Biol. 1984; 25, 147-9.




How to Cite

CHOTIPUNTU, P., & AVAKUL, P. (2011). Aquaculture Potential of Climbing Perch, Anabas Testudineus, in Brackish Water. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 7(1), 15–21. Retrieved from



Research Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)