Anti –Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra isolated from marine waters of Batangas, Philippines

Arizaldo Enriquez Castro, Cristina C. SALIBAY


The ocean boasts untapped novel producers of antibiotic substances in the form of unicellular organisms. One of the newest bioproducers of pharmacologically-significant substances studied for its potential against clinically-significant pathogens is the genus Pseudoalteromonas, a gammaproteobacterial group. This study is a preliminary report detailing the isolation of a Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra species from Philippine marine waters. The isolate coded as PAM-003 was identified as 100% similar to P. flavipulchra strain NCIMB2033 through 16s rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. PAM-003 was allowed to produce bioactives for 12 days. Afterwards, non-polar products were isolated from the base medium through membrane filtration, organic solvent extraction, and rotary evaporation. The crude solution of bioactives injected in sterile discs was used for disc-diffusion assay against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results indicate that PAM-003 demonstrated visually-appreciable zones of inhibition with a mean value of 8 mm. To further describe the antibacterial activity of the isolate, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the bacterial extract was determined through broth microdilution technique. Results indicate that PAM-003 demonstrated a MIC of 1000 µg/mL against MRSA. Additional investigation on the bioactivity of Philippine isolates from the genus Pseudoalteromonas isolated from highly diverse regions of the country is a considerable initiative for increasing the pipeline of new molecular entities for drug discovery.


Pseudoalteromonas, Marine waters, Antibacterial activity, Philippines


BS Seal, D Drider, BB Oakley, H Brüssow, D Bikard, JO Rich, S Miller, E Devillard, K Kwan, G Bertin, S Reeves, SM Swift, M Raicek, CG Gay. Microbial-derived products as potential new antimicrobials. Vet Res 2018, Jul;49(1):66.

Department of Health. Available at:, Accessed February 2017.

M Asif, IA Alvi, SU Rehman. Insight into Acinetobacter baumannii: pathogenesis, global resistance, mechanisms of resistance, treatment options, and alternative modalities. Infect Drug Resist 2018, Aug 21;11:1249-1260.

LM Alcantara, TCS Ferreira, FR Gadelha, DC Miguel. Challenges in drug discovery targeting TriTryp diseases with an emphasis on leishmaniasis. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2018, Sep 28;8(3):430-439.

S Velho-Pereira, NM Kamat. Antimicrobial Screening of Actinobacteria using a Modified Cross-Streak Method. Indian J Pharm Sci 2011, Mar-Apr; 73(2): 223–228.

ARM Coates, G Halls , Y Hu, Novel classes of antibiotics or more of the same?. Br J Pharmacol 2011, May;163(1):184-94.

NAMN Hazalin, K Ramasamy, SM Lim, IA Wahab, ALJ Cole, ABA Majeed, Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from plants at the National Park, Pahang, Malaysia. BMC Complement Altern Med 2009, Nov;9(1):46.

C Offret, F Desriac, P Le Chevalier, J Mounier, C Jégou, Y Fleury. Spotlight on Antimicrobial Metabolites from the Marine Bacteria Pseudoalteromonas: Chemodiversity and Ecological Significance. Mar Drugs 2016, Jul 8;14(7). pii: E129.

JP Bowman, TA McMeekin. Pseudoalteromonas. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. 2015, DOI: 10.1002/9781118960608.gbm01098

A Dheilly, E Soum-Soutera, GL Klein, A Bazire, C Compere, D Haras, A Dufour, Antibiofilm activity of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain 3J6. Appl Environ Microbiol 2010, Jun;76(11):3452-61.

D Feher, R Barlow, J McAtee, TK Hemscheidt, Highly brominated antimicrobial metabolites from a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. J Nat Prod 2010, Nov 29;73(11):1963-6.

A Franks, P Haywood, C Holmstrom, S Egan, S Kjelleberg, N Kumar. Isolation and structure elucidation of a novel yellow pigment from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata. Molecules 2005, 10, 1286–1291.

A Isnansetyo, Y Kamei, MC21-A, a bactericidal antibiotic produced by a new marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas phenolica sp. Nov. O-BC30T, against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003, Feb; 47(2): 480–488.

S Egan, C Holmstrom, S Kjelleberg. Pseudoalteromonas ulvae sp. nov., a bacterium with antifouling activities isolated from the surface of a marine alga. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001 Jul;51(Pt 4):1499-504.

YS Oh, AR Park, JK Lee, CS Lim, JS Yoo, DH Roh. Pseudoalteromonas donghaensis sp. nov. isolated from seawater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011, 2011 Feb;61(Pt 2):351-5.

M Shnit-Orland, A Kushmaro. Coral mucus-associated bacteria: a possible first line of defense. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2009, Mar;67(3):371-80.

CJ Chen, YC Huang. New Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Asia. Clin Microbiol Infect 2014, Jul;20(7):605-23.

JH Song, PR Hsueh, DR Chung, KS Ko, CI Kang, KR Peck, JS Yeom, SW Kim, HH Chang, YS Kim, SI Jung, JS Son, TM So, MK Lalitha, Y Yang, SG Huang, H Wang, Q Lu, CC Carlos, JA Perera, CH Chiu, JW Liu, A Chongthaleong, V Thamlikitkul, PH Van. Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus between the community and the hospitals in Asian countries: an ANSORP study. J. Antimicrob. Chemother 2011, May;66(5):1061-9.

NG Vynne. L Gram. 2011, Bioactivity and phylogeny of the marine bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas, Ph.D. Dissertation. Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.

Ivanova EP, Sawabe T, Lysenko AM, Gorshkova NM, Svetashev VI, Nicolau DV, Yumoto N et al., Pseudoalteromonas ruthenica sp. nov., isolated from marine invertebrates. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Jan;52(Pt 1):235-40.

D Ayuningrum, R Kristiana, MA Asagabaldan, A Sabdono, OK Radjasa, H Nuryadi H, A Trianto, Isolation, Characterization and Antagonistic Activity of Bacteria Symbionts of Hard coral Pavona sp. Isolated from Panjang Island, Jepara against Infectious Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Bacteria. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 2017 55 012029

RV Azanza, Vargas VMD, Fukami K, Shashank K, Onda DFL, Azanza MPV. Culturable algalytic bacteria isolated from seaweeds in the Philippines and Japan. Journal of Environmental Science and Management (Special Issue): 2013, 1: 1-10.

BM Henares, EP Enriquez, FM Dayrit, NRL Rojas. Iota-carrageenan hydrolysis by Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora IFO 12985. Philipp J Sci, 2010 139(2):131-138.

M Yu, J Wang, K Tang, X Shi, WM Zhu, XH Zhang, Purification and characterization of antibacterial compounds of Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra JG1. Microbiology 2012, Mar;158(Pt 3):835-42.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

Last updated: 20 June 2019