Risk Assessment of Emitted Particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Lignite-biomass Pelletization Burning: Size Distribution and Human Health Effects

Rithy KAN, Thaniya KAOSOL, Perapong TEKASAKUL, Surajit TEKASAKUL


Risk assessment of emitted particle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from lignite-biomass pelletization burning focusing on size distribution and human health effects are investigated. The particles and PAHs are experimented by a tube furnace and high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array and fluorescence detectors (HPLC-DAD/FLD), respectively. The carcinogenic, mutagenic, and toxic potencies of PAHs are also discussed in relative to the size distribution of emitted particle PAHs. The results indicate that the carcinogenic, mutagenic, and toxic potencies of PAHs are like to accumulate in the ultrafine particles finer than 0.65 µm. The ultrafine particles contribute the largest PAHs existences of carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic substances; even though they register in the small mass fraction of PAHs.  Moreover, the co-pellets burning can reduce the values of carcinogenic PAHs, carcinogenic equivalency quotients (BaP-TEQ), mutagenic equivalency quotients (BaP-MEQ), and toxic equivalency quotients (TCDD-TEQ) by more than 60%.


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pelletization, burning, risk assessment, size distribution

Full Text:



KH Lui, BAM Bandowe, L Tian, CS Chan, JJ Cao, Z Ning, SC Lee and KF Ho. Cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds in fine particulate matter generated from household coal combustion in Xuanwei, China. Chemosphere 2017; 169, 660-8.

RW Wang, JM Zhang, JJ Liu and G Liu. Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-fired power plant bottom ash and fly ash from Huainan, China. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2013; 65, 193-202.

M Furuuchi, P Tekasakul, T Murase, Y Otani, S Tekasakul and Y Bai. Characteristics of particulates emitted from rubber wood burning. J. Ecotechnol. Res. 2006; 12, 135-9.

P Tekasakul and S Tekasakul. Environmental problems related to natural rubber production in Thailand. J. Aerosol Res. 2006; 21, 122-9.

P Tekasakul, M Furuuchi, S Tekasakul, J Chomanee and Y Otani. Characteristics of PAHs in particulates in the atmospheric environment of Hat Yai City, Thailand, and relationship with rubber-wood burning in rubber sheet production. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 2008; 8, 265-78.

S Orecchio, D Amorello, S Barreca and A Valenti. Wood pellets for home heating can be considered environmentally friendly fuels? Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their ashes. Microchem. J. 2016; 124, 267-71.

G Shen. Emission Factors of Carbonaceous Particulate Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Residential Solid Fuel Combustions. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.

N Peng, Y Li, Z Liu, T Liu and C Gai. Emission, distribution and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during municipal solid waste (MSW) and coal co-combustion. Sci. Total Environ. 2016; 565, 1201-7.

X Wen, Y Yang, F Zeng and D Huang. Influence of temperature and airflow on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by simulated self-combustion of coal partings. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2016; 4, 3601-9.

M Hata, J Chomanee, T Thongyen, L Bao, S Tekasakul, P Tekasakul, Y Otani and M Furuuchi. Characteristics of nanoparticles emitted from burning of biomass fuels. J. Environ. Sci. 2014; 26, 1913-20.

S Liu, C Wang, S Zhang, J Liang, F Chen and K Zhao. Formation and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from coal seam combustion: A case study of the Ulanqab lignite from Inner Mongolia, northern China. Int. J. Coal Geol. 2012; 90, 126-34.

G Shen, S Tao, S Wei, Y Zhang, R Wang, B Wang, W Li, H Shen, Y Huang, Y Chen, H Chen, Y Yang, W Wang, W Wei, X Wang, W Liu, X Wang and SLM Simonich. Reductions in emissions of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass pellets in comparison with raw fuel burning. Environ. Sci. Tech. 2012; 46, 6409-16.

W Wang, S Tao, W Wang, G Shen, J Zhao and KC Lam. Airborne particulates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air in Donghe, Northern China. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A 2009; 44, 854-60.

JL Durant, WF Busby, AL Lafleur, BW Penman and CL Crespi. Human cell mutagenicity of oxygenated, nitrated and unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with urban aerosols. Mutat. Res. Genet. Toxicol. 1996; 371, 123-57.

KH Jung, B Yan, SN Chillrud, FP Perera, R Whyatt, D Camann, PL Kinney and RL Miller. Assessment of benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of residential indoor versus outdoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposing young children in New York City. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010; 7, 1889-900.

KL Willett, PR Gardinali, JL Sericano, TL Wade and SH Safe. Characterization of the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay for evaluation of environmental samples containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1997; 32, 442-8.

J Jimenez, O Farias, R Quiroz and J Yañez. Emission factors of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and levoglucosan from wood combustion in south-central Chile. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 2017; 67, 806-13.

JM Jones, AB Ross, EJS Mitchell, AR Lea-Langton, A Williams and KD Bartle. Organic carbon emissions from the co-firing of coal and wood in a fixed bed combustor. Fuel 2017; 195, 226-31.

L Jiang, X Yuan, H Li, X Chen, Z Xiao, J Liang, L Leng, Z Guo and G Zeng. Co-pelletization of sewage sludge and biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and ash deposits. Fuel Process. Tech. 2016; 145, 109-15.

R Kan, T Kaosol and P Tekasakul. Characterization and elemental composition of lignite and rubber wood sawdust pellets. Eng. Appl. Sci. Res. 2016; 43, 259-62.

W Stelte, JK Holm, AR Sanadi, S Barsberg, J Ahrenfeldt and UB Henriksen. A study of bonding and failure mechanisms in fuel pellets from different biomass resources. Biomass Bioenerg. 2011; 35, 910-8.

R Kan, T Kaosol, P Tekasakul and S Tekasakul. Determination of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from co-pelletization combustion of lignite and rubber wood sawdust. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2017; 243, 12045.

ICT Nisbet and PK LaGoy. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 1992; 16, 290-300.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): What health effects are associated with PAH exposure? Available at: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=13&po=11, accessed April 2016.

EJS Mitchell, AR Lea-Langton, JM Jones, A Williams, P Layden and R Johnson. The impact of fuel properties on the emissions from the combustion of biomass and other solid fuels in a fixed bed domestic stove. Fuel Process. Tech. 2016; 142, 115-23.

A Sever Akdağ, A Atımtay and FD Sanin. Comparison of fuel value and combustion characteristics of two different RDF samples. Waste Manag. 2016; 47, 217-24.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 2228-835X


Last updated: 17 May 2019