DIAGNOSIS OF DIEBACK DISEASE OF THE NUTMEG TREE IN ACEH SELATAN

Susanna Hasan, Meity Suradji Sinaga, Suryo Wiyono, Hermanu Triwidodo

Abstract


Effective control disease measures require a great deal of knowledge about the pathogen, which is also applied to dieback disease of the nutmeg tree in Aceh Selatan District. The objectives of this study were to identify the causal agent of dieback disease on the nutmeg plantation and to assess the effect of drought stress on the development of dieback disease. Pathogen identification was carried out by observing the symptoms of infected plants, morphological characters of the isolated pathogens, Koch’s postulates, as well as molecular analysis and pure pathogen cultures. The samples were taken from an infected part of the nutmeg plant (twigs, stems, and roots) in six subdistricts at the center of the nutmeg plantation in Aceh Selatan. Koch's postulate used the mycelia of pathogens on one-year-old nutmeg seedlings. Drought stress was simulated everyday and then once every two weeks, to be able to study the effect of drought stress on dieback. The results showed that there were four genera of fungal pathogens (Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium solani, Graphium euwallaceae, and Rigidoporus microporus) out of six fungi associated with dieback disease. However, B. Theobromae Pat. turned out to be the dominant fungi associated with dieback on the nutmeg tree in Aceh Selatan. Drought stress was proven to be a predisposing factor for explaining this problem epidemic in Aceh Selatan.


Keywords


Drought stress, Koch’s postulates, pathogen, Botryodiplodia theobromae

References


AP Whitmore and WR Whalley. Physical effects of soil drying on roots and crop growth. J. Exp. Bot., 2009; 60 (10): 2845 – 2857.

CWD Brathwaite. An Introduction to the Diagnosis of Plant Disease. Inter-Am Inst Corp Agric San Jose (CR). Edit IICA, 1981.

Directorate General of Plantation. Indonesia plantation statistic 2016. Directorat General of Plantation of Indonesia. Jakarta, 2016. [written in Indosesian].

EA Hadad and C Firman. The Nutmeg Cultivation. Research center of herbal and medicine plants. Bogor, 2003. [written in Indoneian].

H Jactel, J Petit, MI Loustau, S Delzon, D Piou, A Battisti, and J Koricheva. Drought effects on damage by forest insects and pathogens: a meta – analysis. Global Change Biol., 2012; 18: 267–276. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02512.x

H Toju, AS Tanabe, S Yamamoto, and H Sato. High-covarage ITS primers for the DNA-based identification of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes in environmental samples. Plos. ONE, 2012; 7 (7) : 1-11.

J Lipiec, C Doussan, A Nosalewicz, and K Kondracka. Effect of drought and heat stress on plant growth and yield: a review. Int. Agrophys, 2013; 27: 463 – 477. DOI: 10.2478/intag-2013-0017

J Sambrook and DW Russel. 2001. Molecular Cloning a Laboratory Manual. 3th ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Pr. (US): New York, 2001.

JS Leslie. and BA Summerel. The Fusarium Laboratory Mannual. 1st ed. Blackwell Publishing. Ltd. (US): Iowa, 2006.

KH Domsch, W Gams, and TH Anderson. Compendium of Soil Fungi. Vol. 1. Academic Press. London (EN), 1980.

Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysical Agency. The Information of Climate Change. Class IV Climatology Station. Aceh Besar. Aceh, 2017. [written in Indonesian].

Office of Forestry and Plantation. Guidelines for observing and controlling plant pests. Tapak Tuan. Aceh Selatan, 2014. [written in Indonesian].

RB Streets. The Diagnosis of Plant Diseases: A Field and Laboratory Manual Emphasizing The Most Practical Methode for Rapid Identification. The University of Arizona Press. (US): Tuscon – Arizona, 1972.

R Harni, IM Trisawa, and A Wahyudi. Observation and identification of root fungus disease of the nudmeg trees in Aceh Selatan. Balitri. 2011; 2

(3): 383 - 390. https://www.neliti.com/id/ publications/141559/observasi-dan-identifikasi-penyakit-jamur-akar-pada-tanaman-pala-di-kabupaten-ac [written in Indonesian].

RN Sturrock, SJ Frankel, AV Brown, PE Hennon, JT Kliejunas, KJ Lewis, JJ Worrall, and AJ Woods. Climate change and forest diseases. Plant Pathol., 2011; 60:133 - 149. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02406.x

T Corcobado, E Cubera, E Juarez, G Moreno, and A Solla. Drought events determine performance of Quercus ilex seedlings and increase their susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Agric. For. Meteor, 2014; 1 (8): 192 – 193.

TE Kolb, CJ Fettig, MP Ayres, BJ Bentz, JA Hicke, R Mathiasen, JE Stewart, and AS Weed. Observed and anticipated impacts of drought on forest insects and disease in the United States. For. Ecol. and Management, 2016; 380: 321 – 334.

T Watanabe. Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed Fungi: Morphologies of Cultured Fungi and Key to Species. Lewis Publishers. (JP): Tokyo, 1994.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/image012_400

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

http://wjst.wu.ac.th

Last updated: 20 June 2019