Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Antagonistic Bacteria against Butt Rot Disease Pathogen of Pineapple

Mat Nawi NURNADIRAH, Kartini Che Mohd Ramli NENI, Mohd Yunus Nor YUZIAH


Butt rot disease, caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa (De Seynes) Hohn., is one of the major diseases in pineapple cultivation in Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antifungal effect of antagonist bacteria against T. paradoxa, a causal agent of butt rot disease, and to observe the mechanism of antifungal activity of tested antagonist bacteria microscopically. In this study, in vitro antifungal potential of 5 antagonist bacteria, namely B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5, were isolated from infected and non-infected soil samples and evaluated using dual culture method against T. paradoxa. The mechanisms of antifungal activities of antagonist bacteria against the pathogen were microscopically observed. All of the bacteria showed inhibitory effects against the pathogenic fungi. B1 bacteria showed the highest inhibitory potential, with 73 % inhibition, followed by B2, B3, B4, and B5, with 71, 57, 56, and 48 % of inhibition compared to control, respectively. The results also showed that B2, B3, and B4 bacteria exhibited positive inhibition towards the pathogen, with more than 50 % percentage inhibition. The development of a new product for use as a biocontrol agent, used as an additional control or used in combination with existing ones, may reduce dependency on chemical control and increase antagonistic activity efficiency.


Thielaviopsis paradoxa, antifungal activity, antagonist bacteria, biocontrol agent, butt rot

Full Text:



Malaysian Pineapple Industry Board, Available at: http://www.mpib.gov.my, accessed October 2015.

S Chakraborty, PS Rao and HN Mishra. Effect of combined high pressure: Temperature treatments on colour and nutritional quality attributes of pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) puree. Innovat. Food Sci. Emerg. Tech. 2015; 28, 10-21.

KG Rohrbach and MW Johnson. 9 Pests, Diseases and Weeds. In: KG Rohrbach and MW Johnson (eds.). The Pineapple: Botany, Production, and Uses. CABI, UK, 2002, p. 203-52.

V Marín‐Cevada, J Caballero‐Mellado, R Bustillos‐Cristales, J Muñoz‐Rojas, MA Mascarúa‐Esparza, M Castañeda‐Lucio, L López‐Reyes, L Martínez‐Aguilar and LE Fuentes‐Ramírez. Tatumella ptyseos, an unrevealed causative agent of pink disease in pineapple. J. Phytopathol. 2010; 158, 93-9.

PP Joy and G Sindhu. Disease of Pineapple (Ananas comosus): Pathogen, Symptoms, Infection, Spread & Management. Pineapple Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala, India, 2012, p. 1-14.

H Sukorini, S Sangchote and N Khewkhom. Plant crude extracts and yeast as alternative to synthetic fungicide for controlling postharvest green mould on citrus fruit. Acta Univ. Agr. Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 2013; 61, 795-801.

R Massaguni and SNHM Latip. Neem Crude Extract as Potential Biopesticide for Controlling Golden Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata, Pesticides. In: RP Soundararajan (ed.). Advances in Chemical and Botanical Pesticides. InTech, UK, 2012.

P Pinstrup-Andersen. The future world food situation and the role of plant diseases. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 2000; 22, 321-31.

S Kumar, D Singh, VK Pandey and S Singh. In vitro evaluation of fungitoxicants and Phyto-extracts against Neovossia indica (Mitra) Mund. the causal agent of Karnal bunt of wheat. Int. J. Plant Protect. 2014; 7, 448-52.

M Adam, H Heuer and J Hallmann. Bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens also control root-knot nematodes by induced systemic resistance of tomato plants. PloS One 2014; 9, e90402.

M Islam, YT Jeong, YS Lee and CH Song. Isolation and identification of antifungal compounds from Bacillus subtilis C9 inhibiting the growth of plant pathogenic fungi. Mycobiology 2012; 40, 59-66.

WE Khoury and K Makkouk. Integrated plant disease management in developing countries. J. Plant Pathol. 2010; 92, S35-S42.

P Frey-Klett, P Burlinson, A Deveau, M Barret, M Tarkka and A Sarniguet. Bacterial-fungal interactions: hyphens between agricultural, clinical, environmental, and food microbiologists. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 2011; 75, 583-609.

MM Begum, S Meon, M Ahmad, Z Abidin, A Puteh and A Rahman. Antagonistic potential of selected fungal and bacterial biocontrol agents against Colletotrichum truncatum of soybean seeds. Pertanika J. Trop. Agr. Sci. 2008; 31, 45-53.

MP Das, PV Devi and Y Yasmine. A study on antagonistic potential of bacteria against phytopathogenic fungi. Int. J. Pharmaceut. Sci. Rev. Res. 2015; 34, 191-3.

IK Park, J Kim, YS Lee and SC Shin. In vivo fungicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against six phytopathogenic fungi. Int. J. Pest Manag. 2008; 54, 63-8.

K Soytong, W Pongak and H Kasiolarn. Biological control of Thielaviopsis bud rot of Hyophorbe lagenicaulis in the field. J. Agr. Tech. 2005; 1, 235-45.

S Abdullah, L Asensio, E Monfort, S Gomez-Vidal, J Salinas, L Lorca and H Jansson. Incidence of the two date palm pathogens, Thielaviopsis paradoxa and T. punctulata in soil from date palm plantations in Elx, South-East Spain. J. Plant Protec. Res. 2009; 49, 276-9.

S Živković, S Stojanović, Ž Ivanović, V Gavrilović, T Popović and J Balaž. Screening of antagonistic activity of microorganisms against Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Arch. Biol. Sci. 2010; 62, 611-23.

D Warwick and EE Passos. Outbreak of stem bleeding in coconuts caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa in Sergipe, Brazil. Trop. Plant Pathol. 2009; 34, 175-7.

ÁFD Santos, CA Inácio, MV Inácio and R Tomaz. First report of Thielaviopsis paradoxa causing stem rot in Dracaena marginata in Brazil. Summa Phytopathol. 2012; 38, 345-6.

R Chakrabarty, GC Acharya and TC Sarma. Effect of fungicides, Trichoderma and plant extracts on mycelial growth of Thielaviopsis paradoxa, under in vitro condition. Bioscan 2013; 8, 55-8.

D Rees, G Farrell and J Orchard. Crop post-harvest: Science and Technology. Vol III. John Wiley & Sons, USA, 2012.

P Suleman, A Al-Musallam and CA Menezes. The effect of solute potential and water stress on black scorch caused by Chalara paradoxa and Chalara radicicola on date palms. Plant Dis. 2001; 85, 80-3.

V Gepp, L Hernández, S Alaniz and F Zaccari. First report of Thielaviopsis paradoxa causing palm fruit rot of Butia capitata in Uruguay. New Dis. Rep. 2013; 27, 12.

A Gowsalya, V Ponnusami and KR Sugumaran. Isolation of bacteria from soil sample for exo-polysaccharide production. Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res. 2014; 6, 2925-8.

T Moore, L Globa, J Barbaree, V Vodyanoy and I Sorokulova. Antagonistic activity of Bacillus bacteria against food-borne pathogens. J. Probiot. Health 2013; 1, 1-6.

P Wang, Y Liu, Y Yin, H Jin, S Wang, F Xu, S Zhao and S Geng. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 2011; 7, 209-20.

J Lecomte, M St-Arnaud and M Hijri. Isolation and identification of soil bacteria growing at the expense of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2011; 317, 43-51.

R Bodike and SR Thatikonda. Biotreatment of brewary effluent using pseudomonas species. J. Environ. Sci. Toxicol. Food Tech. 2014; 8, 8-12.

S Baron. Medical Microbiology. In: PCB Turnbull (ed.). Bacillus. University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, USA, 1996.

AS Angelidis, MS Kalamaki and SS Georgiadou. Identification of non-Listeria spp. bacterial isolates yielding a β-D-glucosidase-positive phenotype on Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA). Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2015; 193, 114-29.

TS Vishnu and M Palaniswamy. Isolation and identification of chromobacterium sp. from different ecosystems. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 2016; 9, 253-7.

HA Asmaa, NN Ban and HA Hind. Isolation and identification of serratia marcescens from bovine mastitis infections in Iraq and their susceptibility to antibiotics. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud. 2017; 5, 489-92.

HA Idris, N Labuschagne and L Korsten. Screening rhizobacteria for biological control of Fusarium root and crown rot of sorghum in Ethiopia. Biol. Contr. 2007; 40, 97-106.

B Hameeda, OP Rupela, G Reddy and K Satyavani. Application of plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with composts and macrofauna for growth promotion of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). Biol. Fertil. Soils 2006; 43, 221-7.

OA Sicuia, CP Cornea and A Pop. Fungal and bacterial glycoconjugats interactions: Specific mechanism between lectin producing fungi and bacillus biocontrol strains? Agr. Life Sci. J. 2013; 2, 127-32.

K Wang, PS Yan, LX Cao, QL Ding, C Shao and TF Zhao. Potential of chitinolytic Serratia marcescens strain JPP1 for biological control of Aspergillus parasiticus and aflatoxin. BioMed Res. Int. 2013; 2013, 397142.

R El Khaldi, M Daami-Remadi, W Hamada, L Somai and M Cherif. The potential of serratia marcescens: An indigenous strain isolated from date palm compost as biocontrol agent of rhizoctonia solani on potato. J. Plant Pathol. Microbiol. 2015; S3, 006.

HH Altinok, M Dikilitas and HN Yildiz. Potential of pseudomonas and bacillus isolates as biocontrol agents against fusarium wilt of eggplant. Biotech. Biotechnol. Equip. 2013; 27, 3952-8.

RC Abaidoo, AS Killani, AK Akintokun and MA Abiala. Antagonistic effect of indigenous Bacillus subtilis on root-/soil-borne fungal pathogens of cowpea. Researcher 2011; 3, 11-8.

DN Suprapta. Potential of microbial antagonists as biocontrol agents against plant fungal pathogens. J. Int. Soc. Southeast Asian Agr. Sci. 2012; 18, 1-8.

A Nega. Review on concepts in biological control of plant pathogens. J. Biol. Agr. Healthc. 2014; 4, 33-54.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 2228-835X


Last updated: 12 August 2019