MEMS Technology for Optical Switching

Kornkamol THAKULSUKANANT

Abstract


Over the last ten years, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices have received attention in many application areas such microwave, wireless, and optical networks. Especially in optical networks, MEMS technology is employed to provide the advantages of large switch matrix size with low loss at an optimum cost [1,2]. Therefore, optical switches based MEMS technology are now widely used and are considered a good option for optical switching networks. Moreover, they also provide wavelength insensitivity, polarization insensitivity, scalability, and very low crosstalk [3-5]. MEMS optical switches provide fast switching speeds ranging from milliseconds to several hundred microseconds. In this article, MEMS-based optical switches are reviewed including their advantages and disadvantages.


Keywords


Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), 2 dimensional MEMS (2D MEMS), 3 dimensional MEMS (3D MEMS), optical crossconnect (OXC), scalability, 3D MEMS, Optical crossconnect (OXC), scalability

Full Text:

PDF

References


PD Dobbelare, K Falta, S Gloeckner and S Patra. Digital MEMS for optical switching. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2002; 40, S16-S23.

DJ Bishop, CR Giles and SR Das. The rise of optical switching. Sci. Am. Mag. 2001; 284, 74-80.

E Ollier. Optical MEMS devices based on moving waveguides. IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2002; 8, 155-62.

X Ma and GS Kuo. Optical switching technology comparison: Optical MEMS vs. other technologies. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2003; 41, S16-S23.

RW Trach. Opportunities for MEMS in lightwave networks. In: Proceeding of the 3rd International conference on Micro Opto Electro Mechanical systems (MOEMS), Mainz, Germany, 1999, p. 1-2.

GI Papadimitriou, C Papazoglou and AS Pomportsis. Optical switching: switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures. J. Lightw. Technol. 2003; 21, 384-405.

S Nagaoka and Y Suzuki. Compact optomechanical switches and their applications in optical communication and testing systems. In: Proceeding of the 10th Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Nagoya, Japan, 1997, p. 366-71.

R Ramaswami, KN Sivarajan and GH Sasaki. Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective. 3rd ed. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 2010, p. 205-18.

R Appelman and Z Zalevsky. All-optical switching technologies for protection applications. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2004; 42, S35-S40.

P Tayebati, P Wang, M Azimi, L Maflah and D Vakhshoori. Microelectromechanical tunable filter with stable half symmetric cavity. Electron. Lett. 1998; 34, 1967-8.

C Marxer, MA Gretillat, NF de Rooij, R Battig, O Anthamatten, B Valk and P Vogel. Reflective duplexer based on silicon micromechanics for fiber-optic communications. J. Lightw. Technol. 1999; 17, 115-22.

JA Walker, KW Goossen and SC Arney. Fabrication of a mechanical antireflection switch for fiber-to-the-home systems. J. Microelcectromech. Syst. 1996, 5, 45-51.

PD Dobbelaere, K Falta and S Gloeckner. Advances in integrated 2D MEMS-based solutions for Optical Network Applications. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2003; 41, S16-S23.

H Toshiyoshi and H Fujita. Electrostatic micro torsion mirrors for an optical switch matrix. J. Microelectromech. Syst. 1996; 5, 231-7.

LY Lin, EL Goldstein and RW Tkach. Free-space micromachined optical switches with submillisecond switching time for large-scale optical crossconnects. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1998; 10, 525-7.

SS Lee, E Motamedi and MC Wu. Surface-micromachined free-space fiber optic switches with integrated microactuators for optical communication systems. In: Proceeding of the International Conference on Solid States Sensors and Actuators, Chicago, 1997, p. 85-8.

C Marxer, C Thio, MA Gretillat, NF de Rooij, R Battig, O Anthamatten, B Valk and P Vogel. Vertical mirrors fabricated by deep reactive ion etching for fiber-optic switching applications. J. Microelectromech. Syst. 1997; 6, 277-85.

C Marxer and NF de Rooij. Micro-opto-mechanical 2×2 switch for single-mode fibers based on plasma-etched silicon mirror and electrostatic actuation. J. Lightw. Technol. 1999; 17, 2-6.

PM Hagalin, U Krishnamoorthy, JP Heritage and O Solgaard. Scalable optical cross-connect switch using micromachined mirrors. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2000; 12, 882-4.

L Fan, S Gloeckner, PD Dobbelare, S Patra, D Reiley, C King, T Yeh, J Gritters, S Gutierrez, Y Loke, M Harburn, R Chen, E Kruglick, M Wu and A Husain. Digital MEMS switch for planar, photonic crossconnects. In: Proceeding of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, CA, USA, 2002, p. 93-4.

G Zhu and GS Kuo. A novel integrated multistage 2-D MEMS optical switch with Spanke-Benes architecture. J. Lightw. Technol. 2008; 26, 560-8.

X Ma and GS Kuo. A novel integrated multistage optical MEMS-mirror switch architecture design with shuffle Benes inter-stage connecting principle. Opt. Commun. 2004; 142, 179-89.

VOK Li, CY Li and PKA Wai. Alternative structures for two-dimensional MEMS optical switches. J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2004; 3, 742-57.

LYEL Goldstein and RW Tkach. On the expandability of free-space micromachined optical cross connects. J. Lightw. Technol. 2000; 18, 482-9.

CY Li, GM Li, VOK Li, PKA Wai, H Xie and XC Yuan. Using 2×2 switching modules to build large 2-D MEMS optical switches. In: Proceeding of the Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), San Francisco, CA, 2003, p. 2798-802.

MA Basha, N Dechev, S Safavi-Naeini and SK Chaudhuri. A Scalable 1×N optical MEMS switch architecture utilizing a microassembled rotating micromirror. IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2007; 13, 336-47.

YJ Yang and BT Liao. A novel 4×4 optical switching using an anisotropically etched micromirror array and a bistable mini-actuator array. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2009; 21, 115-7.

KC Fan, WL Lin, LH Chiang, SH Chen, TT Chung and YJ Yang. A 2×2 mechanical optical switch with a thin MEMS mirror. J. Lightw. Technol. 2009; 27, 1155-61.

BT Chia, CW Ma, BT Liao, SC Shih and YJ Yang. Development of a 2×2 optical switch using bi-stable solenoid-based actuators. In: Proceeding of the International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OPT MEMS), Sapporo, 2010, p. 123-4.

S Li, Z Wan, J Xu, S Zhong and Y Wu. Wavelength-selective switch based on a polarization-independent transmission grating and a high fill-factor micromirror array. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2011; 23, 1249-51.

DT Neilson, VA Aksyuk, S Arney, NR Basavanhally, KS Bhalla, DJ Bishop, BA Boie, CA Bolle, JV Gates, AM Gottlieb, JP Hickey, NA Jackman, PR Kolodner, SK Korotky, B Mikkelsen, F Pardo, G Raybon, R Ruel, RE Scotti, TW van Blarcum, L Zhang and CR Giles. Fully provisioned 112×112 micro-mechanical optical crossconnect with 35.8 Tb/s demonstrated capacity. In: Proceeding of the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) Conference, Baltimore, MD, 2000, p. 202-4.

R Ryf, J Kim, JP Hickey, A Gnauck, D Carr, F Pardo, C Bolle, R Frahm, N Basavanhally, C Yoh, D Ramsey, R Boie, R George, J Kraus, C Lichtenwalner, R Papazian, J Gates, HR Shea, A Gasparyan, V Muratov, JE Griffith, JA Prybyla, S Goyal, CD White, MT Lin, R Ruel, C Nijander, S Arney, DT Neilson, DJ Bishop, P Kolodner, S Pau, C Nuzman, A Weis, B Kumar, D Lieuwen, V Aksyuk, DS Greywall, TC Lee, HT Soh, WM Mansfield, S Jin, WY Lai, HA Huggins, DL Barr, RA Cirelli, GR Bogart, K Teffeau, R Vella, H Mavoori, A Ramirez, NA Ciampa, FP Klemens, MD Morris, T Boone, JQ Liu, JM Rosamilia and CR Giles. 1296-port MEMS transparent optical crossconnect with 2.07 petabit/s switch capacity. In: Proceeding of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, CA, USA, 2001, PD28.

M Kozhevnikov, NR Basavanhally, JD Weld, YL Low, P Kolodner, CA Bolle, R Ryf, AR Papazian, A Olkhovets, F Pardo, J Kim, DT Neilson, VA Aksyuk and JV Gates. Compact 64×64 micromechanical optical cross connect. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2003; 15, 993-5.

X Zheng, V Kaman, S Yuan, Y Xu, O Jerphagnon, A Keating, RC Anderson, HN Poulsen, B Liu, JR Sechrist, C Pusarla, R Helkey, DJ Blumenthal and JE Bowers. Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance. IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2003; 9, 571-8.

V Kaman, X Zheng, S Yuan, J Klingshirn, C Pusarla, RJ Helkey, O Jerphagnon and JE Bowers. Cascadability of large-scale 3D MEMS-based low-loss photonic cross-connects. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2005; 17, 771-3.

VA Aksyuk, S Arney, NR Basavanhally, DJ Bishop, CA Bolle, CC Chang, R Frahm, A Gasparyan, JV Gates, R George, CR Giles, J Kim, PR Kolodner, TM Lee, DT Neilson, C Nijander, CJ Nuzman, M Paczkowski, AR Papazian, R Ryf, H Shea and ME Simon. 238×238 surface micromachined optical crossconnect with 2 dB maximum loss. In: Proceeding of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, CA, USA, 2002, FB9-1 - FB9-3.

VA Aksyuk, F Pardo, D Carr, D Greywall, HB Chan, ME Simon, A Gasparyan, H Shea, V Lifton, C Bolle, S Arney, R Frahm, M Paczkowski, M Haueis, R Ryf, DT Neilson, J Kim, C Giles and BD Randy. Beam-steering micromirrors for large optical cross-connects. J. Lightw. Technol. 2003; 21, 634-42.

J Kim, CJ Nuzman, B Kumar, DF Lieuwen, JS Kraus, A Weiss, CP Lichtenwalner, AR Papazian, RE Frahm, NR Basavanhally, DA Ramsey, VA Aksyuk, F Pardo, ME Simon, V Lifton, HB Chan, M Haueis, A Gasparyan, HR Shea, S Arney, CA Bolle, PR Kolodner, R Ryf, DT Neilson and JV Gates. 1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2003; 15, 1537-9.

M Mizukami, J Yamaguchi, N Nemoto, Y Kawajiri, H Hirata, S Uchiyama, M Makihara, T Sakata, N Shimoyama, H Ishii and F Shimokawa. 128×128 3D-MEMS optical switch module with simultaneous optical paths connection for optical cross-connect systems. In: Proceeding of the International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS), Pisa, 2009, p. 1-2.

LY Lin and EL Goldstein. Opportunities and challenges for MEMS in lightwave communications. IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2002; 8, 163-72.

LY Lin and EL Goldstein. Free-space micromachined optical switches for optical networking. IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1999; 5, 4-9.

T Bakke, CP Tigges and CT Sullivan. 1×2 MOEMS switch based on silicon-on-insulator and polymeric waveguides. Electron. Lett. 2002; 38, 177-8.

T Bakke, CP Tigges, JJ Lean, CT Sullivan and OB Spahn. Planar microoptomechanical waveguide switches. IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2002; 8, 64-72.

MC Wu, O Solgaard and JE Ford. Optical MEMS for lightwave communication. J. Lightw. Technol. 2006; 24, 4433-54.

DM Marom, CR Doerr, M Cappuzzo, E Chen, A Wong-Foy and L Gomez. Hybrid free-space and planar lightwave circuit wavelength-selective 1×3 switch with integrated drop-side demultiplexer. In: Proceeding of the 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Stevenage, UK, 2005, p. 993-4.

CH Chi, J Yao, JC Tsai, MC Wu and K Okamoto. Compact 1×8 MEMS optical switches using planar light wave circuits. In: Proceeding of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2004, paper THQ4.

B Clouet, BL Guyader, S Lobo, F Merlaud, JC Simon and T Ducellier. Cascadability study of 16 1×9 wavelength selective switches with 5×42.6 Gb/s CS-RZ channels. In: Proceeding of the 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Glasgow, UK, 2005, p. 735-6.

DT Fuchs, CR Doerr, VA Aksyuk, ME Simon, LW Stulz, S Chandrasekhar, LL Buhl, M Cappuzzo, L Gomez, A Wong-Foy, E Laskowski, E Chen and R Pafchek. A hybrid MEMS-waveguide wavelength selective cross connect. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2004; 16, 99-101.

M Kozhevnikov, P Kolodner, DT Neilson, AR Papazian, RE Frahm and JV Gates. Integrated array of 1×N optical switches for wavelength-independent and WDM applications. J. Lightw. Technol. 2006; 24, 884-90.

S Iwamoto, M Tokushima, A Gomyo, H Yamada, A Higo, H Toshiyoshi, H Fujita and Y Arakawa. Optical switching in photonic crystal waveguide controlled by micro electro mechanical system. In: Proceeding of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Pacific Rim), 2005, p. 233-4.

MCM Lee, DY Hah, EK Lau, H Toshiyoshi and M Wu. MEMS-actuated photonic crystal switches. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2006; 18, 358-60.

H Xiaoqin and G Qingyuan. Two dimensional photonic crystal switches. In: Proceeding of the IEEE/LEOS International conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics, Clearwater, FL, USA, 2009, p. 111-2.

H Cai, KJ Xu, JF Tao, L Ding, JM Tsai, GQ Lo and DL Kwong. A nano-optical switch driven by optical force using a laterally coupled double-ring resonator. In: Proceeding of the IEEE 25th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Paris, France, 2012, p. 1297-300.

J Bowers. Low power 3D MEMS optical switches. In: Proceeding of the International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OPT MEMS), Clearwater, FL, USA, 2009, p. 152-3.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/image012_400

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

http://wjst.wu.ac.th

Last updated: 20 June 2019