Effect of cold temperature on mass production of Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Braconidae: Hymenoptera) reared on Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Atirach NOOSIDUM, Weerachai SOMSRI, Angsumarn CHANDRAPATYA


Habrobracon hebetor has been investigated as a successful biological control agent for larvae of pyralid moths in warehouses. Gaining new information on how to improve the storage procedure of H. hebetor pupa under cold conditions could allow the development of approaches to maintain this parasitoid in pest management program. This study aims to investigate the effect cold temperatures (10 and 15 °C) on pupal storage of H. hebetor reared with Corcyra cephalonica for up to three weeks. The mortality results of H. hebetor adult emerging during cold storage at 10 °C (18 %) and 15 °C (61 %) were significantly observed after 21 days of storage while other treatments were less than 4 %. Mortality of H. hebetor pupa during cold storage in all treatments presented 4 - 19 %. The most percentage of male and female emerging after cold storage were 60 - 86 % and 19 - 39 %, respectively and their numbers were not different from control treatment. Numbers of egg laid by adult females were not significant in control treatment after laying for 72 hours, and the number of eggs was 43 - 45 eggs per female. Significance on number of male and female progeny produced by the female after storage between control treatment and other treatments were not observed at 72 hours after emerging. The sex ratios between male and female in all treatments were not significant from control treatment, and the ratio was 0.62 - 0.91 at 72 hours after emerging.


insect parasitoid, rice moth, cold storage, sex ratio, biological control


P DeBach and D Rosen. Biological control by natural enemies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991.

WG Ware. Complete Guide to Pest Control With and Without Chemicals. Thomson Publications. Fresno, California. 1980.

DL Mahr, P Whitaker and N Ridgway. Biological control of insects and mites, An introduction to beneficial natural enemies and their use in pest management. Department of Entomology University of Wisconsin-Madison, Cooperative Extension Publishing, Madison, WI. 2008.

J Benson, A Pasquale, RV Driesche and J Elkinton. Assessment of risk posed by introduced braconid wasps to Pieris virginiensis, a native woodland butterfly in New England. Biological Control. 2003; 26, 83-93.

MN Ghimire and TW Phillips. Suitability of different lepidopteran host species for development of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Environ. Entomol. 2010; 39, 449-458.

DW Keever, MA Mullen, JW Press and RT Arbogast. Augmentation of natural enemies for suppressing two major insect pests in stored farmer’s stock peanuts. Environ. Entomol. 1986; 15, 767-777.

MdS Alam, MdZ Alam, SN Alam, MdR Miah, MdI Mian and MM Hossain. Biology of Bracon hebetor reared on wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae. Persian. Gulf. Crop. Protect. 2014; 3, 54-62.

JW Press, LD Cline and BR Flaherty, A comparison of two parasitoids, Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), and a predator Xylocoris flavipes (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in suppressing residual populations of the almond moth, Ephestia cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Kansas. Entomol. Soc. 1982. 55, 125-128.

H Chen, H Zhang, KY Zhu and J Throne. Performance of diapausing parasitoid wasps, Habrobracon hebetor, after cold storage. Biol. Control. 2013.64, 186-194.

Z Mousapour, A Alireza and A Habib. Effect of cold storage of pupae parasitoid wasp, Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), on its efficiency. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2014; 47, 966-972.

M Mansour. Effects of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, mature larvae and acceptability of irradiated larvae by Bracon hebetor say females. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2015; 60, 43-47.

M Imam, A Uwais, U Namat, A Akbar and T Ahmat. Influence of Habrobracon hebetor on Helicoverpa armigera in southern Xinjiang. Nat. Enem. Insect. 2007; 29, 12-15.

D Saadat, AR Bandani and M Dastranj. Comparison of the developmental time of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on five different lepidopteran host species and its relationship with digestive enzymes. Eur. J. Entomol. 2014; 111(4), 495-500.

R Stouthamer, RF Luck and JH Werren. Genetics of sex determination and the improvement of biological control using parasitoids. Environ. Entomol. 1992; 21, 427-435.

J Karimzadeh and DJ Wright. Bottom-up cascading effects in a tritrophic system: interactions between plant quality and host-parasitoid immune responses. Ecol. Entomol. 2008; 33, 45-52.

J Karimzadeh, J Hardie and DJ Wright. Plant resistance affects the olfactory response and parasitism success of Cotesia vestalis. J. Insect Behav. 2013; 26, 35-50.

H Faal-Md-Ali and P Shishehbor. Biological parameters of Bracon hebetor (Hym.: Braconidae) parasitizing Ephestia kuehniella (Lep.: Pyralidae): effect of host diet. J. Crop. Prot. 2013; 2(4), 411-419.

RA Leopold. Cold storage of insects for integrated pest management. In: Hallman GJ and Denlinger DL (eds.). Temperature sensitivity in insects and application in integrated pest management. Westview Press, Boulder, 1998, p. 235-267.

PK Nikim and CV Powar. Life tables and intrinsic rate of natural increase of Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) population on Corcyra cephalonica (Staint) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a key parasitoid of Helicoverpa armigera (hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. App. Entomol. 1993; 115, 210-213.

R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available Source: http: //www.R-project.org/, July 31, 2016.

XF Huang. Use of Habrobracon hebetor Say in granary pest control. Chinese J. Biol. Control. 1986; 2, 78-80.

AM Masood and H Chi. Demography of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on two pyralid hosts (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 2006; 99, 84-90.

H Chen, P George, B Opit, PA Sheng and H Zhang. Maternal and progeny quality of Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) after cold storage. Biol. Control. 2011.58, 255-261.

RA Leopold, RR Rojas and PW Atkinson. Post pupariation cold storage of three species of flies: increasing chilling tolerance by acclimation and recurrent recovery periods. Cryobiology. 1998; 36, 213-224.

KB Storey and JM Storey. Freeze tolerance in animals. Physiological Reviews. 1988. 68, 27-84.

HV Danks. Insect dormancy: an ecological perspective. Vol I. Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Artropods), Ottawa, 1987.

MS Clark and MR Worland. How insects survive the cold: molecular mechanisms – a review. J Comp. Physiol. B. Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. 2008. 178, 917-933.

CG Jackson and GD Butler. Development time of three species of Bracon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on the pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in relation to temperature. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 1984; 77, 539-542.

SH Yu, MI Ryoo, JH Na and WI Choi. Effect of host density and the sex ratio of progeny of Bracon hebetor (Hymneoptera: Braconidae). J. Stored. Prod. Res. 2003. 39, 385-393.

N Rotary and D Gerling. The influence of some external factors upon the sex ratio of Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environ. Entomol. 1973; 2(1). 134-138.

JA Reinert and EW King. Action of Bracon hebetor Say as a parasite of Plodia interpunctella at controlled densities. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 1971; 64, 1335-1340.

JM Cook, AR Lynch and HCJ Godfray. Sex ratio and foundress number in the parasitoid wasp Bracon hebetor. Anim. Behav. 1994; 47, 687-696.

PJ Ode, MF Antolin and MR Strand. Constrained oviposition and femalebiased sex allocation in a parasitic wasp. Oecologia. 1997.109, 547-555.

DL Denlinger. Regulation of diapause. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2002; 47, 93-122.

SC Stearns. Life-history tactics: a review of the ideas. Quart. Rev. Biol. 1976; 51, 3-47.

CP Chen, RE Lee and DL Denlinger. Cold shock and heat shock: a comparison of the protection generated by brief pretreatment at less severe temperatures. Physiol. Ent. 1991; 16, 19-26.

JP Rinehart, A Li, GD Yocum, RM Robich, SA Hayward and DL Denlinger. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins is essential for cold survival during insect diapause. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2007; 104 (27), 11130-11137.

MR Michaud. 2007. Molecular physiology of insect low temperature stress responses. Ph.D. dissertation. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

NH Haunerland and PD Shirk. Regional and functional differentiation in the insect fat body. Annu. Rev. Entomal. 1995; 40, 121-145.

EL Arrese and JL Soulages. Insect fat body: energy, metabolism, and regulation. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2010; 55, 207-225.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 2228-835X


Last updated: 20 June 2019