Epidermal Modification in Skin of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats



Delayed wound healing is one of complications in the diabetic dermopathy, and potentially causes chronic ulceration and limb amputation. To investigate the effects of diabetes on the skin, male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. After 24 weeks of a single dose of streptozotocin administration, the skin was removed as part of the histological process to produce microscopic slides and was viewed under a light microscope. It was shown that the thickness of the epidermis in long-termed diabetic rats decreased. Additionally, in the long-termed diabetic group, hypertrophic keratinocytes and pyknotic melanocytes were also observed in the stratum basale. The size of keratinocyte and its nucleus in the stratum spinosum was smaller. In addition, there was a dense-stained layer with shreds in the stratum corneum. It was concluded that long-termed diabetes causes these pathological aspects of the skin, and might further contribute to chronic wound formation. Therefore, skin problems should be managed with early diagnosis and treatment, in order to improve quality of life in diabetic patients.


Diabetic dermopathy, diabetes mellitus, epidermis

Full Text:



World Health Organization, Available at: http://www.who.int/diabetes/en, accessed October 2015.

S Wilde, G Roglic, A Green, R Sicree and H King. Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabet. Care 2004; 27, 1047-53.

S Thorne. Chronic disease management: What is the concept? Can. J. Nurs. Res. 2008; 40, 7-14.

R Pilon, PH Bailey, P Montgomery and D Bakker. The future is the present: Diabetes complication stories. J. Nurs. Healthc. Chronic. Illn. 2011; 3, 234-44.

E Selvin, J Coresh and FL Brancati. The burden and treatment of diabetes in elderly individuals in the U.S. Diabet. Care 2006; 29, 2415-9.

AG De Belvis, F Pelone, A Biasco, W Ricciardi and M Volpe. Can primary care professionals' adherence to Evidence Based Medicine tools improve quality of care in type 2 diabetes mellitus? A systematic review. Diabet. Res. Clin. Pract. 2009; 85, 119-31.

KG Alberti and PZ Zimmet. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet. Med. 1998 ;15, 539-53.

G Romano, G Moretti, A Di Benedetto, C Giofrè, E Di Cesare, G Russo, L Califano and D Cucinotta. Skin lesions in diabetes mellitus: Prevalence and clinical correlations. Diabet. Res. Clin. Pract. 1998; 39, 101-6.

J Varani, P Perone, MG Merfert, SE Moon, D Larkin and MJ Stevens. All-transretinoic acid improves structure and function of diabetic rat skin in organ culture. Diabetes 2002; 51, 3510-6.

M Mirzaei, M Bayat, N Mosafa, Z Mohsenifar, A Piryaei, B Farokhi, F Rezaei, Y Sadeghi and M Rakhshan. Effect of low-level laser therapy on skin fibroblasts of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Photomed. Laser. Surg. 2007; 25, 519-25.

DJ Tobin. Biochemistry of the skin-our brain on the outside. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2006; 35, 52-67.

PM Elias. Stratum corneum defensive functions: An integrated view. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2005; 125, 183-200.

RA Briggaman. Epidermal-dermal interactions in adult skin. J. Invest. Dermatol. 1982; 79, 21-4.

GJ Hausman, DR Campion, RL Richardson and RJ Martin. Adipocyte development in the rat hypodermis. Am. J. Anat. 1981; 161, 85-100.

A Monfort, M Soriano-Navarro, JM García-Verdugo and A Izeta. Production of human tissue-engineered skin trilayer on a plasma-based hypodermis. J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 2012; 7, 479-90.

JA Bouwstra and PL Honeywell-Nguyen. Skin structure and mode of action of vesicles. Adv. Drug. Deliv. Rev. 2002; 54, 41-55.

A Haake and K Holbrook. The Structure and Development of Skin. In: IM Freedberg, AZ Eisen, K Wolff, KF Austen, LA Goldsmith, SI Katz and TB Fitzpatrick (eds.). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999, p. 70-114.

MA Pathak. Functions of Melanin and Protection by Melanin. In: L Zeise, MR Chedekel and TB Fitzpatrick. (eds.). Melanin: Its Role in Human Photoprotection. Valdemar Publishing, Kans, 1995, p. 125-34.

E Wertheimer. Diabetic skin complications: A need for reorganizing the categories of diabetes-associated complications. Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 2004; 6, 287-9.

X Chen, W Lin, S Lu, Y Shi, J Zou, Z Liu and W Liao. Insulin prevents latent skin lesions by inhibiting the generation of advanced glycation end products in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Endocr. Pathol. 2009; 20, 163-9.

GE Costin and VJ Hearing. Human skin pigmentation: Melanocytes modulate skin color in response to stress. Federat. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. J. 2007; 21, 976-94.

T Ferringer and F Miller. Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Dermatol. Clin. 2002; 20, 483-92.

J Wohlrab, D Wohlrab and F Meiss. Skin diseases in diabetes mellitus. J. Dtsch. Dermatol. Ges. 2007; 5, 37-53.

RG Sibbald and RK Schachter. The skin and diabetes mellitus. Int. J. Dermatol. 1984; 23, 567-84.

Y Chu, D Yu, P Wang, J Xu, D Li and M Ding. Nanotechnology promotes the full-thickness diabetic wound healing effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor in diabetic rats. Wound. Repair. Regen. 2010; 18, 499-505.

WH Tang, KA Martin and J Hwa. Aldose reductase, oxidative stress, and diabetic mellitus. Front. Pharmacol. 2012; 3, 87.

N Spravchikov, G Sizyakov, M Gartsbein, D Accili, T Tennenbaum and E Wertheimer. Glucose effects on skin keratinocytes: Implications for diabetes skin complications. Diabetes 2001; 50, 1627-35.

M Sadagurski, S Yakar, G Weingarten, M Holzenberger, CJ Rhodes, D Breitkreutz, D Leroith and E Wertheimer. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling regulates skin development and inhibits skin keratinocyte differentiation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2006; 26, 2675-87.

S Sakai, Y Endo, N Ozawa, T Sugawara, A Kusaka, T Sayo, H Tagami and S Inoue. Characteristics of the epidermis and stratum corneum of hairless mice with experimentally induced diabetes mellitus. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2003; 120, 79-85.

T Yu, JL Robotham and Y Yoon. Increased production of reactive oxygen species in hyperglycemic conditions requires dynamic change of mitochondrial morphology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006; 103, 2653-8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 2228-835X


Last updated: 20 June 2019