Understanding the First and the Second Waves of the COVID-19 in Germany: Is our Social Behavior Enough to Protect us from the Pandemic?


  • Muhamad KHAIRULBAHRI The Postgraduate Programme of Development Studies, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia




System dynamics, COVID-19, Coronavirus, Germany COVID-19 cases, SEIR model


Like other European countries, Germany has experienced the 2nd wave of the COVID-19 amid obligations of social distancing and wearing of face masks in public spaces. Although Germany successfully contained the virus during the 1st wave, it has faced difficulties in controlling the COVID-19 during the 2nd wave. This study develops a computer model representing the COVID-19 flow in Germany by comparing the effects of the measures taken during the 1st and the 2nd waves. The computer model is based on the SEIR concept and the system dynamics (SD) approach in which some unknown parameters are estimated through the calibration process. Moreover, the SEIR computer model is developed by considering different cases in older and young people and the SEIR model successfully reproduces similar patterns of infected, recovered, and death cases in the 1st and the 2nd waves in Germany. The SEIR model also shows that the measures taken in the 1st wave have different efficacies than those in the 2nd wave, leading to higher infected cases during the 2nd wave. Since the SEIR model can successfully reproduce similar patterns, the SEIR model can be a basis for further studies in estimating other resource needs such as health workers, and bed capacities.


  • The SEIR model estimates the efficacies of behavioral measures and lockdowns
  • Behavioral measures are less effective than lockdowns
  • Germany experienced higher infected cases in the first wave than in the second wave
  • Relaxed lockdowns lead to higher infected cases in the second wave
  • Lockdowns are the key to curb COVID-19 flow



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How to Cite

KHAIRULBAHRI, M. . (2021). Understanding the First and the Second Waves of the COVID-19 in Germany: Is our Social Behavior Enough to Protect us from the Pandemic?. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 18(15), Article 22203 (11 pages). https://doi.org/10.48048/wjst.2021.22203