Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub. Leaves Ameliorates Inflammation and Pain in Experimental Mice and Computer-Aided Model
Keywords:Xylia xylocarpa, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-nociceptive, Trans-5-hydroxypipecolic, Molecular docking
Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub. is traditionally used to treat several diseases, including leprosy, wound healing, gonorrhea, rheumatism, anemia, diarrhea and ulcer. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic extract of Xylia xylocarpa leaves (MEXX) via in vitro, in vivo as well as in silico models. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by human red blood cell membrane stabilization study and protein denaturation while in vivo anti-nociceptive activity was examined by the acetic acid-induced writhing test (AAWT) and formalin-induced paw licking test (FIPLT). Additionally, trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acid was an identified compound of MEXX which was subjected to molecular docking analysis followed by ADME/T and toxicity analysis. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that MEXX was enriched with carbohydrates, flavonoids, alkaloids, proteins, tannins and showed significant total phenolic (1222.66 ± 0.66 mg GAE/g dried extract) and flavonoids contents (325.33 ± 1.76 mg QE/g dried extract) in quantitative phytochemical screening. Inflammatory studies unveiled that; MEXX significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the hemolysis of membrane and protein at different concentrations (31.25 - 1000 μg/mL). The extract also displayed statistically significant analgesic responses in the acetic acid and formalin-induced test at several doses (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w). In AAWT, the extract exhibited 13.67 and 51.37 % inhibition of writhing at the doses 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively. In formalin-induced paw licking test, the early phase pain inhibition was 54.64 % at the concentration of 400 mg/kg while during the latter phase at 400 mg/kg, the inhibition of pain was 43.82 %. According to molecular docking analysis, trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acid demonstrated a promising docking score against PDE4, COX-1, and COX-2 along with satisfied pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Finally, from the results it could be concluded that MEXX has potential anti-inflammatory and an-nociceptive effects that should require further investigation.
- Xylia xylocarpa minimizes the inflamation and pain
- Xylia xylocarpa showed significant analgesic activity
- Xylia xylocarpa revealed polyphenolic compounds including phenol, and flavonoid
- In in silico, trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acid possessed significant analgesic activity against COX-1 and COX-2
JNR Moni, M Adnan, AM Tareq, MI Kabir, ASMA Reza, MS Nasrin, KH Chowdhury, SAJ Sayem, MA Rahman, AHMK Alam, SB Alam, MA Sakib, KK Oh, DH Cho and R Capasso. Therapeutic potentials of syzygium fruticosum fruit (seed) reflected into an array of pharmacological assays and prospective receptors-mediated pathways. Life 2021; 11,155.
KH Hossain, MA Rahman, M Taher, J Tangpong, D Hajjar, W Alelwani, AA Makki and ASMA Reza. Hot methanol extract of Leea Macrophylla (Roxb.) manages chemical-induced inflammation in Rodent Model. J. King Saud Univ. Sci. 2020; 32, 2892-9.
ASMA Reza, MS Hossain, S Akhter, MR Rahman, MS Nasrin, MJ Uddin, G Sadik and AHM K Alam. In vitro antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of Elatostema papillosum leaves and correlation with their phytochemical profiles: A study relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. BMC Compl. Alternative Med. 2018; 18, 123.
MS Hossain, ASMA Reza, MM Rahaman, MS Nasrin, MRU Rahat, MR Islam, MJ Uddin, MA Rahman. Evaluation of morning glory (Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb) leaves for antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities. J. Basic Clin. Physiol Pharmacol. 2018; 29, 291-9.
Adnan M, Chy M, Uddin N, Kamal A, Chowdhury KAA, Rahman M, Reza A, Moniruzzaman M, Rony SR and Nasrin M. Intervention in neuropsychiatric disorders by suppressing inflammatory and oxidative stress signal and exploration of In silico studies for potential lead compounds from Holigarna caustica (Dennst.) Oken leaves. Biomolecules 2020; 10, 561.
P Ansari, MJ Uddin, MM Rahman, M Abdullah-Al-Mamun, MR Islam, MH Ali and ASMA Reza. Anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of an ornamental medicinal plant: Persicaria orientalis. J. Basic Clin Physiol. Pharmacol. 2017; 28, 51-8.
MJ Uddin, ASMA Reza, M Abdullah-Al-Mamun, MSH Kabir, MS Nasrin, S Akhter, MSI Arman and MA Rahman. Antinociceptive and Anxiolytic and sedative effects of methanol extract of Anisomeles indica: An experimental assessment in mice and computer aided models. Front. Pharmacol. 2018; 9, 246.
P Siddhuraju, K Vijayakumari and K Janardhanan. Nutrient and chemical evaluation of raw seeds of Xylia xylocarpa: An underutilized food source. Food Chem. 1995; 53, 299-304.
LMT Lam, MTT Nguyen, HX Nguyen, PH Dang, NT Nguyen, HM Tran, HT Nguyen, NM Nguyen , BS Min, JA Kim, JS Choi and MV Can. Anti-cholinesterases and memory improving effects of Vietnamese Xylia xylocarpa. Chem. Cent. J. 2016; 10, 48.
PS Nakmee, S Khuntong and N Nuengchamnong. Phytochemical constituents with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities from Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub. Sawdust Extracts. Chiang Mai J. Sci. 2016; 43, 11-21.
L Mester, L Szabados, M Mester and N Yadav. Identification by 13C NMR spectroscopy of trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acid in the leaves of Xylia xylocarpa, a new inhibitor of platelet agregation induced by serotonin. Planta Med. 1979; 35, 339-41.
H Mobarak, MS Meah, N Sikder, M Tareq, A Azad, R Khatun, MS Nasrin, MO Raihan and AA Reza. Investigation of Preliminary phytochemicals, analgesic, anti-arthritic, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of Begonia roxburghii (Miq.) DC. Leaves. Med. One 2018; 2, e180001.
MF Khan, FB Kader, M Arman, S Ahmed, C Lyzu, SA Sakib, SM Tanzil, AFMIU Zim, MAS Imran, T Venneri, B Romano, MA Haque and R Capasso. Pharmacological insights and prediction of lead bioactive isolates of Dita bark through experimental and computer-aided mechanism. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2020; 131, 110774.
OECD iLibrary. Testing No. 423: Acute oral toxicity-OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals section 4. OECD Publishing, 2002.
R Koster, M Anderson and EJD Beer. Acetic acid for analgesic screening. Fed. Proc. 1959; 18, 412-7.
M Gaertner, L Müller, JF Roos, G Cani, ARS Santos, R Niero, JB Calixto, RA Yunes, FD Monache and V Cechinel-Filho. Analgesic triterpenes from Sebastiania schottiana roots. Phytomedicine 1999; 6, 41- 4.
AM Tareq, S Farhad, M Hasan, SS Chowdhury, SAJ Sayem and S Hossain. Experimental analysis of selected isolated compounds of Borreria species against inflammation using computational chemistry. In: Proceedings of the Bangladesh Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chittagong, Bangladesh. 2019.
S Ahmad, MS Nasrin, ASMA Reza, N Chakrabarty, MA Hoque, S Islam, MSH Kabir, SM Tareq, AHMK Alam, MA Haque and MSI Arman. Curculigo recurvata W.T. Aiton exhibits anti‐nociceptive and anti‐diarrheal effects in Albino mice and an in silico model. Anim. Model. Exp. Med. 2020; 3, 169-81.
Hussein HA, Borrel A, Geneix C, Petitjean M, Regad L and Camproux A-C. PockDrug-Server: a new web server for predicting pocket druggability on holo and apo proteins. Nucleic acids research. 2015; 43, W436-W42.
A Borrel, L Regad, H Xhaard, M Petitjean and AC Camproux. PockDrug: A model for predicting pocket druggability that overcomes pocket estimation uncertainties. J. Chem. Inf. Model. 2015; 55, 882-95.
RBJ Auniq, MNU Chy, M Adnan, A Roy, MA Islam, TN Khan, MZ Hasan, S Ahmed, MF Khan, N Islam, MI Khan, MA Hossain, MA Kabir, MTH Mukut and S Islam . Assessment of anti-nociceptive and anthelmintic activities of Vitex Peduncularis Wall. leaves and in silico molecular docking, ADME/T, and PASS prediction studies of its isolated compounds. J. Compl. Med. Res. 2019; 10, 170-85.
CA Lipinski, F Lombardo, BW Dominy and PJ Feeney. Experimental and computational approaches to estimate solubility and permeability in drug discovery and development settings. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 2001; 46, 3-26.
MA Hossen, ASMA Reza, AMA Ahmed, MK Islam, I Jahan, R Hossain, MF Khan, MRA Maruf, MA Haque and MA Rahman. Pretreatment of Blumea lacera leaves ameliorate acute ulcer and oxidative stress in ethanol-induced Long-Evan rat: A combined experimental and chemico-biological interaction. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2021; 135, 111211.
MN Islam, H Tasnim, L Arshad, MA Haque, SM Tareq, ATMM Kamal, MM Rahman, ASMA Reza, KAA Chowdhury and AM Tareq. Stem extract of Albizia richardiana exhibits potent antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and thrombolytic effects through in vitro approach. Clin. Phytosci. 2020; 6, 60.
ZM Babar, I Jaswir, AM Tareq, ASMA Reza, WM Azizi, M Hafidz, F Ahfter, M Hasan, S Farhad, MMR Uddin, SJ Ichwan, QU Ahmed, M Taher and I Mawa. In vivo anxiolytic and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of water-soluble extract (WSE) of Nigella sativa (L.) seeds. Nat. Prod. Res. 2019; 3, 1-6.
S Akter, M Shah, AM Tareq, MS Nasrin, MA Rahman, ZM Babar, MA Haque, MJ Royhan, MN Mamun, ASMA Reza and TB Emran. Pharmacological effect of methanolic and hydro-alcoholic extract of coconut endocarp. J. Adv. Biotechnol. Exp. Ther. 2020; 3, 171-81.
S Trongsakul, A Panthong, D Kanjanapothi and T Taesotikul. The analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of Diospyros variegata Kruz. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 85, 221-5.
MR Islam, MN Uddin, ASMA Reza, MNU Rana and K Farhana. In vivo evaluation of analgesic activity of methanolic extract of Laportea interrupea (L.) leaves. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2014; 6, 552-6.
SMF Bellah, MN Islam, MR Karim, MM Rahaman, MS Nasrin, MA Rahman, ASMA Reza. Evaluation of cytotoxic, analgesic, antidiarrheal and phytochemical properties of Hygrophila spinosa (T. Anders) whole plant. J. Basic Clin. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2017; 28, 185-90.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.