Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub. Leaves Ameliorates Inflammation and Pain in Experimental Mice and Computer-Aided Model


  • Kamrul Hasan CHOWDHURY Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, Chittagong 4318, Bangladesh
  • Riad CHOWDHUR Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, Chittagong 4318, Bangladesh
  • Mehedi HASAN Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, Chittagong 4318, Bangladesh
  • Mohammad Jamir UDDIN Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, Chittagong 4318, Bangladesh
  • Zahid HASAN Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, Chittagong 4318, Bangladesh
  • Samima NASRIN Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, Chittagong 4318, Bangladesh
  • A. S. M. Ali REZA Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, Chittagong 4318, Bangladesh




Xylia xylocarpa, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-nociceptive, Trans-5-hydroxypipecolic, Molecular docking


Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub. is traditionally used to treat several diseases, including leprosy, wound healing, gonorrhea, rheumatism, anemia, diarrhea and ulcer. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic extract of Xylia xylocarpa leaves (MEXX) via in vitro, in vivo as well as in silico models. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by human red blood cell membrane stabilization study and protein denaturation while in vivo anti-nociceptive activity was examined by the acetic acid-induced writhing test (AAWT) and formalin-induced paw licking test (FIPLT). Additionally, trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acid was an identified compound of MEXX which was subjected to molecular docking analysis followed by ADME/T and toxicity analysis. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that MEXX was enriched with carbohydrates, flavonoids, alkaloids, proteins, tannins and showed significant total phenolic (1222.66 ± 0.66 mg GAE/g dried extract) and flavonoids contents (325.33 ± 1.76 mg QE/g dried extract) in quantitative phytochemical screening. Inflammatory studies unveiled that; MEXX significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the hemolysis of membrane and protein at different concentrations (31.25 - 1000 μg/mL). The extract also displayed statistically significant analgesic responses in the acetic acid and formalin-induced test at several doses (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w). In AAWT, the extract exhibited 13.67 and 51.37 % inhibition of writhing at the doses 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively. In formalin-induced paw licking test, the early phase pain inhibition was 54.64 % at the concentration of 400 mg/kg while during the latter phase at 400 mg/kg, the inhibition of pain was 43.82 %.  According to molecular docking analysis, trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acid demonstrated a promising docking score against PDE4, COX-1, and COX-2 along with satisfied pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Finally, from the results it could be concluded that MEXX has potential anti-inflammatory and an-nociceptive effects that should require further investigation.


  • Xylia xylocarpa minimizes the inflamation and pain
  • Xylia xylocarpa showed significant analgesic activity
  • Xylia xylocarpa revealed polyphenolic compounds including phenol, and flavonoid
  • In in silico, trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acid possessed significant analgesic activity against COX-1 and COX-2



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How to Cite

CHOWDHURY, K. H. ., CHOWDHUR, R. ., HASAN, M. ., UDDIN, M. J. ., HASAN, Z. ., NASRIN , S. ., & REZA, A. S. M. A. . (2021). Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub. Leaves Ameliorates Inflammation and Pain in Experimental Mice and Computer-Aided Model. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 18(15), Article 22197 (13 pages). https://doi.org/10.48048/wjst.2021.22197