Formation and Characterization of Polyelectrolyte Complexes containing Pectin and Zein
Keywords:Pectin, zein, polyelectrolyte complex, characterization
The formation of pectin-zein polyelectrolyte complexes was investigated, with emphasis on the effect of pectin type and zein concentration. The pectin-zein complexes were formed by mixing pectin solution with zein solution at pH 4, where zein and pectin had opposite charges. The formation of the complexes was evidenced by an increased turbidity, a slight decrease of negative charges, and an aggregation of polymers, as observed by digital images, microscopic images, and scanning electron micrographs. Fourier transform infrared spectra suggested the possibility of weak physical interaction between pectin and zein. The pectin-zein complexes demonstrated better oil/water interfacial tension lowering properties than pectin alone. The results suggest that these pectin-zein complexes could be used to improve the physical properties and stability of emulsions. Also, pectin and zein showed to be promising materials, thus extending the range of applications of these natural polymers.
JH Hamman. Chitosan based polyelectrolyte complexes as potential carrier materials in drug delivery systems. Mar. Drugs. 2010; 8, 1305-22.
CL Cooper, PL Dubin, AB Kayitmazer and S Turksen. Polyelectrolyte-protein complexes. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2005; 10, 52-78.
E Bouyer, G Mekhloufi, V Rosilio, JL Grossiord and F Agnely. Proteins, polysaccharides, and their complexes used as stabilizers for emulsions: Alternatives to synthetic surfactants in the pharmaceutical field? Int. J. Pharm. 2012; 436, 359-78.
AK Ghosh, P Bandyopadhyay. Polysaccharide-Protein Interactions and Their Relevance in Food Colloids. In: DN Karunaratne (ed.). The Complex World of Polysaccharides, InTech, Rijeka, 2012, p. 395-408.
YS Gu, EA Decker and DJ McClements. Influence of pH and carrageenan type on properties of β-lactoglobulin stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids 2004; 19, 83-91.
PM Gilsenan, RK Richardson and ER Morris. Associative and segregative interactions between gelatin and low-methoxy pectin: Part 1. Associative interactions in the absence of Ca2+. Food Hydrocolloids 2003; 17, 723-37.
S Khalloufi, M Corredig, HD Goff and M Alexander. Flexseed gums and their adsorption on whey protein on whey protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids 2009; 23, 611-8.
KG Zinoviadou, E Scholten, T Moschakis and CG Biliaderis. Properties of emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan complexes. Int. Dairy J. 2012; 26, 94-101.
F Dong, GW Padua and Y Wang. Controlled formation of hydrophobic surfaces by self-assembly of an amphiphilic natural protein from aqueous solutions. Soft Matter 2013; 9, 5933-41.
Y Guo, Z Liu, H An, M Li and J Hu. Nano-structure and properties of maize zein studied by atomic force microscopy. J. Cereal Sci. 2005; 41, 277-81.
Y Luo, Z Teng and Q Wang. Development of zein nanoparticles coated with carboxymethyl chitosan for encapsulation and controlled release of vitamin D3. J. Agri. Food Chem. 2012; 60, 836-43.
P Sriamornsak. Chemistry of pectin and its pharmaceutical uses: A review. Silpakorn Univ. Int. J. 2003; 3, 206-28.
P Sriamornsak. Application of pectin in oral drug delivery. Expert Opin. Drug Del. 2011; 8, 1009-23.
F Munarin, MC Tanzi and P Petrini. Advances in biomedical applications of pectin gels. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2012; 51, 681-9.
L Liu, ML Fishman, KB Hicks, M Kende and G Ruthel. Pectin/zein beads for potential colon-specific drug delivery: synthesis and in vitro evaluation. Drug Del. 2006; 13, 417-23.
ZK Mukhidinov, GF Kasimova, DT Bobokalonov, DKh Khalikov, KhI Teshaev, MD Khalikova and LS Liu. Pectin-zein microspheres as drug delivery systems. Pharm. Chem. J. 2011; 14, 564-7.
K Hu, X Huang, Y Gao, X Huang, H Xiao and DJ McClements. Core-shell biopolymer nanoparticle delivery systems: synthesis and characterization of curcumin fortified zein-pectin nanoparticles. Food Chem. 2015; 182, 275-81.
S Soltani and A Madadlou. Gelation characteristics of the sugar beet pectin solution charged with fish oil-loaded zein nanoparticles. Food Hydrocolloids 2015; 43, 664-9.
M Juttulapa, S Piriyaprasarth and P Sriamornsak. Effect of pH on stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by pectin-zein complexes. Adv. Mater. Res. 2013; 747, 127-30.
M Juttulapa and P Sriamornsak. Effect of zein concentration on the formation of pectin-zein complexes. Adv. Mater. Res. 2012; 506, 319-22.
N Thirawong, J Thongborisute, H Takeuchi and P Sriamornsak. Improved intestinal absorption of calcitonin by mucoadhesive delivery of novel pectin-liposome nanocomplexes. J. Control. Rel. 2008; 125, 236-45.
V Cabra, R Arreguin, R Vazquez-Duhalt and A Farres. Effect of alkaline deamidation on the structure, surface hydrophobicity, and emulsifying properties of the Z19 α-Zien. J. Agri. Food Chem. 2007; 55, 439-45.
LS Liu, ML Fishman and KB Hicks. Pectin in controlled drug delivery: review. Cellulose 2007; 14, 15-24.
NA Camino, CC Sánchez, JMR Patino and AMR Pilosof. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose at the oil-water interface. Part I. Bulk behaviour and dynamic adsorption as affected by pH. Food Hydrocolloids 2011; 25, 1-11.
Y Wu, Y Luo and Q Wang. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of essential oils encapsulated in zein nanoparticles prepared by liquid-liquid dispersion method. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2012; 48, 283-90.
E Calce, V Bugatti, V Vittoria and SD Luca. Solvent-free synthesis of modified pectin compounds promoted by microwave irradiation. Molecules 2012; 17, 12234-42.
Y Luo, B Zhang, M Whent, LL Yu and Q Wang. Preparation and characterization of zein/chitosan complex for encapsulation of α-tocopherol, and its in vitro controlled release study. Colloid. Surface. B 2011; 85, 145-52.
JWJ de Folter, MWM van Ruijvena and KP Velikov. Oil-in-water pickering emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles from the water-insoluble protein zein. Soft Matter 2012; 8, 6807-15.
Y Zouambia, N Moulai-Mostefa and M Krea. Structural characterization and surface active of hydrophobically functionalized extracted pectins. Carbohydr. Polym. 2009; 78, 841-6.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2016 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.