Assessment of Trace Elements Contamination of Agricultural Topsoil around Lakhouat Mine Area, Tunisia

Hamdi SAHRAOUI, Rafla ATTIA, Hédi HAMROUNI, Mohamed HACHICHA

Abstract


Soil contamination by Pb, Zn and Cd was characterized in the surrounding area of the abandoned Lakhouat mine. The mine area was divided into 3 zones. Eighteen topsoil samples were sampled from each zone and were characterized, determining the total trace element concentration by acid digestion of Pb, Zn and Cd. Samples belonging to the mine tailing dam showed the highest values of contamination, with mean concentrations of 2925 mg kg-1 for Pb, 7297 mg kg-1 for Zn, and 37 mg kg-1 for Cd. High concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd were found in many samples taken from the surrounding soils and agricultural soils, indicating the extent of spreading pollution of trace elements. Contaminations in soils were classified as enrichment factor, contamination factor and contamination degree. Factor values indicate that trace elements contamination levels of soils on the 3 studied zones are classified as high contamination factors. A principal component analysis revealed the presence of one common source in the mining area. Cluster analysis showed a close association between soils with similar trace elements concentration. Spreading of tailing wastes from dams of the mining facilitating via rain or wind is the main source of soil contamination of agricultural soils.


Keywords


Trace elements, contamination, Lakhouat mine, mine tailings, contamination factors

Full Text:

PDF

References


PW Abrahams. Soils: Their implications to human health. Sci. Total Environ. 2002; 291, 1-32.

Selinus, BJ Alloway, JA Centeno, RB Finkelman, R Fuge, R Lindh and P Smedley. Essentials of Medical Geology. Elsevier Academic Press, 2005, p. 812.

HM Conesa, A Faz and R Arnaldos. Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance in plants from mine tailings of the semiarid Cartagena-La Union mining district (SE Spain). Sci. Total Environ. 2006; 366, 1-11.

AM Khorasanipour, H Majid, A Tangestani, BR Naseh and H Hajmohammadi. Hydrochemistry, mineralogy and chemical fractionation of mine and processing wastes associated with porphyry copper mines: a case study from the Sarcheshmeh mine, SE Iran. Appl. Geochem. 2011; 26, 714-30.

M Miler and M Gosar. Characteristics and potential environmental influences of mine waste in the area of the closed Mezica Pb-Zn mine (Slovenia). J. Geochem. Explor. 2012; 112: 152-60.

BJ Alloway. Heavy metals in soils: Trace metals and metalloids. Environ. Pollut. 2013; 22, 615.

J Frouz, K Hrčková, J Lána, V Krištůfek, O Mudrák and A Lukešová. Can laboratory toxicity tests explain the pattern of field communities of algae, plants, and invertebrates along a toxicity gradient of post-mining sites? Appl. Soil. Ecol. 2011; 51, 114-21.

J Ribeiro, SR Taffarel, CH Sampaio, D Flores and LFO Silva. Mineral speciation and fate of some hazardous contaminants in coal waste pile from anthracite mining in Portugal. Int. J. Coal. Geol. 2013; 109, 15-23.

S Boussen, M Soubrand, H Bril, K Ouerfelli and S Abdeljaouad. Transfer of lead, zinc and cadmium from mine tailings to wheat (Triticum aestivum) in carbonated Mediterranean (Northern Tunisia) soils. Geoderma 2013; 192, 227-36.

C Monterroso, F Rodríguez, R Chaves, J Diez, C Becerra-Castro, PS Kidd and F Macías. Heavy metal distribution in mine-soils and plants growing in a Pb/Zn-mining area in NW Spain. Appl. Geochem. 2014; 44, 3-11.

J Smuda, B Dold, JE Spangenberg and HR Pfeifer. Geochemistry and stable isotope composition of fresh alkaline porphyry copper tailings: Implications on sources and mobility of elements during transport and early stages of deposition. Chem. Geol. 2008; 256, 62-76.

HM Anawar, A Garcia-Sanchez, A Murciego and T Buyolo. Exposure and bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated soils from the La Parrilla mine, Spain. Environ. Geol. 2006; 50, 170-9.

S Castillo, JD de la Rosa, AMS de la Campa, Y González-Castanedo, JC Fernández-Caliani, I Gonzalez and A Romero. Contribution of mine wastes to atmospheric metal deposition in the surrounding area of an abandoned heavily polluted mining district (Rio Tinto mines, Spain). Sci. Total Environ. 2013; 449, 363-72.

OA Al-Khashman and RA Shawabkeh. Metal distribution in urban soil around steel industry beside Queen Alia Airport, Jordan. Environ. Geol. Health 2009; 31, 717-26.

C Fritsch, P Giraudoux, M Coeurdassier, F Douay, F Raoul, C Pruvot, C Waterlot, A de Vaufleury and R Scheifler. Spatial distribution of metals in smelter-impacted soils of woody habitats: influence of landscape and soil properties, and risk for wildlife. Chemosphere 2010; 81, 141-55.

C Nikolaidis, I Zafiriadis, V Mathioudakis and T Constantinidis. Heavy metal pollution associated with an abandoned lead-zinc mine in the Kirki region, NE Greece. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2010; 85, 307-12.

M Aktaruzzaman, ANM Fakhruddin, MAZ Chowdhury, Z Fardous and MK Alam. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their transfer to leafy vegetables in the region of Dhaka Aricha Highway, Savar, Bangladesh. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 2013; 16, 332-8.

L Hakanson. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control, a sedimentological approach. Water. Res. 1980; 14, 975-1001.

GMS Abrahim and PJ Parker. Assessment of heavy metal enrichment factors and the degree of contamination in marine sediments from Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2008; 136, 227-38.

HH Huu, S Rudy and AV Damme. Distribution and contamination status of heavy metals in estuarine sediments near Cau Ong Harbour, Ha Long Bay, Vietnam. Geology Belgica 2010; 13, 37-47.

INM Institut National de la Météorologie de Tunisie 2014, Available at: http://www.meteo.tn/htmlen/donnees/observations.php, accessed December 2014.

F Guitian and T Carballas. Técnicas de Análisis de Suelos. Ed. Pico Sacro, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 1976.

U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkaline Soils. USDA Handbook 60. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, USA, 1954, p. 1-160.

D Kroetsch and C Wang. Particle Size Distribution. In: MR Carter and EG Gregorich (eds.). Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. 2nd ed. Canadian Society of Soil Science, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2008, p. 713-26.

WH Hendershot and M Duquette. A simple barium chloride method for determining cation exchange capacity and exchangeable cations. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1986; 50, 605-8.

A Walkley and IA Black. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic titration method. Soil Sci. 1934; 34, 29-38.

JM Bremmer and CS Mulvaney. Nitrogen-Total. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. In: AL Page, RH Miller and DR Keeney (eds). Agronomy Monographs No. 9. 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 1982, p. 595-624.

A Mehlich. Soil test extractant: A modification of extractant. Commun. Soil. Sci. Plant. Anal. 1984; 15, 1409-16.

P Marcet, ML Andrade and MJ Montero. Efficacité d’une méthode de digestion par microondes pour la détermination de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb Cr Al et Cd en sédiments. In: Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace-Elements, Paris, 1997.

M Soubrand-Colin, C Neel, H Bril, C Grosbois and L Caner. Geochemical behaviour of Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb in an Andosol Cambisol climosequence on basaltic rocks in the French Massif Central. Geoderma 2007; 137, 340-51.

RA Sutherland. Bed sediment associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environ. Geol. 2000; 39, 611-27.

K Loska, D Wiechula and I Korus. Metal contamination of farming soils affected by industry. Environ. Int. 2004; 30, 159-65.

IT Joliffe. Principal Component Analysis. 2nd ed. Springer, New York, 1986, p. 488.

RG Brereton. Data Analysis for the Laboratory and Chemical Plant. Wiley, West Sussex, 2003, p. 504.

HE Doner. Chloride as a factor in mobilities of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II). Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 1978; 42, 882-5.

R Ortiz, S Hernández and F Alcaraz. Caracterización edafogenetica de los suelos halomorfos de un sector meridional de la Albufera de Elche (Alicante). Anal. Edaf. Agrob. 1985; 44, 93-117.

AL Lafuente, C González, JR Quintana, A Vázquez and A Romero. Mobility of heavy metals in poorly developed carbonate soils in the Mediterranean region. Geoderma 2008; 145, 238-44.

A García-Sánchez, P Alonso-Rojo and F Santos-Francés. Distribution and mobility of arsenic in soils of a mining area (Western Spain). Sci. Total Environ. 2010; 408, 4194-201.

F Zeng, S Ali, H Zhang, Y Ouyang, B Qiu, F Wu and G Zhang. The influence of pH and organic matter content in paddy soil on heavy metal availability and their uptake by rice plants. Environ. Pollut. 2011; 159, 84-91.

E Helios-Rybicka and R Wójcik. Competitive sorption/desorption of Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cr by clay-bearing mining wastes. Appl. Clay. Sci. 2012; 66, 6-13.

A Kabata-Pendias and H Pendias. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2001.

RD Knight and PJ Henderson. Smelter dust in humus around Rouyn-Noranda. Québec. Geochem. Explor. Environ. Anal. 2006; 6, 203-14.

J Bech, N Roca, J Barceló, P Duran, P Tume and C Poschcenrieder. Soil and plant contamination by lead mining in Bellmunt (Western Mediterranean Area). J. Geochem. Explor. 2012; 113, 94-9.

MC Navarro, C Perez-Sirvent, MJ Martinez-Sanchez, J Vidal, PJ Tovar and J Bech. Abandoned mine sites as a source of contamination by heavy metals: a case study in a semiaridzone. J. Geochem. Explor. 2008; 96, 183-93.

P Iavazzo, P Adamo, M Boni, S Hillier and M Zampella. Mineralogy and chemical forms of lead and zinc in abandoned mine wastes and soils: an example from Morocco. J. Geochem. Explor. 2012; 113, 56-67.

P Iavazzo, D Ducci, P Adamo, M Trifuoggi, A Migliozzi and M Boni. Impact of past mining activity on the quality of water and soil in the High Moulouya Valley (Morocco). Water. Air. Soil. Poll. 2012; 223, 573-89.

SS Kachout, AB Mansoura, R Mechergui, JC Leclerc, MN Rejeb and Z Ouerghi. Accumulation of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in the halophyte plant Atriplex grown on polluted soil. J. Sci. Food. Agr. 2012; 92, 336-42.

N Ben Bahri, B Laribi, S Soufi, S Rezgui and T Bettaieb. Growth performance, photosynthetic status and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud growing on contaminated soils. Int. J. Agron. Agr. Res. 2015; 6, 32-43.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/image012_400

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

http://wjst.wu.ac.th

Last updated: 20 June 2019