Morphological and Anatomical Features of Cosmopolitan Hornwort: Phaeoceros carolinianus (Michx.) Prosk.

Phuntsho PENJOR, Sahut CHANTANAORRAPINT, Upatham MEESAWAT

Abstract


The morphological and anatomical characteristics of Phaeoceros carolinianus (Michx.) Prosk. were investigated. Samples were collected from Chiang Mai, Thailand, during September - October 2013. The gametophyte and the sporophyte samples including spores and pseudoelaters were examined under a light and scanning electron microscope. The gametophyte exhibits a single large chloroplast with a pyrenoid in the center, the absence of a schizogenous cavity, both smooth and tuberculate rhizoids along the median region of the ventral side and the presence of Nostoc colonies located on the ventral side of the thallus. The sporophyte consists of 4 - 5 assimilative layers and one layer of tetrads that surround the 16-celled columella (4´4 rows of cell). The crescent-shaped foot can usually be seen. The sporogenesis with successive division begins at the base and moves forwards to the tip in an acropetal direction. The spores are spinose on the distal surface while on the proximal face ornamentation performed slight variations with medium papillae over vermiculated triradiate faces.


Keywords


Gametophyte, hornworts, Phaeoceros, sporophyte

Full Text:

PDF

References


J Li, L Zhang and L Zhou. Phylogenetic position of the genus Hattorioceros (Anthoceratophyta). Taxon 2011; 60, 1633-6.

JC Villareal and SS Renner. Hornwort pyrenoids, carbon-concentrating structures, evolved and were lost at least five times during the last 100 million years. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012; 109, 18873-8.

S Chantanaorrapint. Taxonomic studies on Thai Anthocerotophyta I. The genera Dendroceros and Megaceros (Dendrocerotaceae). Taiwania 2014; 59, 340-7.

RJ Duff, JC Villarreal, DC Cargill and KS Renzaglia. Progress and challenges toward developing a phylogeny and classification of the hornworts. The Bryologist 2007; 110, 214-24.

JC Villarreal, DC Cargill, A Hagborg, L Soderstrom and KS Renzaglia. A synthesis of hornwort diversity: Patterns, causes and future work. Phytotaxa 2010; 9, 150-66.

YL Qiu, L Li, B Wang, Z Chen, V Knoop, M Groth-Malonek, O Dombrovska, J Lee, L Kent, J Rest, GF Estabrook, TA Hendry, DW Taylor, CM Testa, M Ambros, B Crandall-Stotler, RJ Duff, M Stech, W Frey, D Quandt and CC Davis. The deepest divergences in land plants inferred from phylogenetic evidence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006; 103, 15511-6.

J Shaw and K Renzaglia. Phylogeny and classification of bryophytes. Am. J. Bot. 2004; 91, 1557-81.

DC Cargill, KS Renzaglia, JC Villarreal and RJ Duff. Generic concepts within hornworts: historical review, contemporary insights and future directions. Aust. Syst. Bot. 2005; 18, 7-16.

S Chantanaorrapint. Phaeoceros perpusillus (Notothyladaceae), a new species of hornwort from Thailand. Acta Bot. Hung. 2009; 51, 29-33.

RM Giesy and PW Richards. A collection of bryophytes from Thailand (Siam). Trans. Brit. Bryol. Soc. Cambridge 1959; 3, 575-81.

MJ Lai, RL Zhu and S Chantanaorrapint. Liverworts and hornworts of Thailand: an updated checklist and bryofloristic accounts. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 2008; 45, 321-41.

P Sukkharak, P Kitlap, A Likananonn and S He. A preliminary study of bryophytes in the Khao Soi Dao wildlife sanctuary, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Tech. 2014; 36, 527-34.

P Sukkharak and S Chantanaorrapint. Bryophyte studies in Thailand: Past, present and future. Crytogamie Bryologie 2014; 35, 5-17.

SE Ruzin. Plant Microtechnique and Microscopy. Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 1999, p. 1-322.

JC Villareal and KS Renzaglia. Sporophyte structure in the Neotropical hornwort Phaeomegaceros fimbriatus: Implications for phylogeny, taxonomy and character evolution. Int. J. Plant Sci. 2006; 167, 413-27.

J Proskauer. Studies on anthocerotales III. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 1951; 78, 331-49.

BJ Crandall-Stotler, RE Stotler, WT Doyle and LL Forrest. Phaeoceros proskaueri sp. nov., a new species of the Phaeoceros hallii (Austin) Prosk.- Phaeoceros pearsonii (M. Howe) Prosk. complex and the systematic affinities of Paraphymatoceros Hässel. Fieldiana Bot. 2008, 47, 213-38.

J Proskauer. Studies on Anthocerotales I. Ann. Bot. 1948; 12, 237-65.

DC Cargill and A Fuhrer. Taxonomic studies of the Australian Anthocerotophyta II: The Genus Phaeoceros. Fieldiana Bot. 2008; 47, 239-53.

KS Renzaglia. A comparative morphology and developmental anatomy of Anthocerotophyta. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 1978; 44, 31-90.

KS Renzaglia, JC Villarreal and RJ Duff. New Insights into Morphology, Anatomy and Systematic of Hornworts. In: B Goffinet and J Shaw (eds.). Bryophyte Biology, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2009, p. 139-71.

RM Schuster. Evolution, Phylogeny and Classification of the Anthocerotae. In: RM Schuster (ed.). New Manual of Bryology Vol. II. Hattori Botanical Laboratory, Nichinan, Japan. 1984, p. 1070-92.

M Shimamura. Sporophyte anatomy of Megaceros flagellaris. Hikobia 2009; 15, 261-9.

EO Cambell. Some name changes in New Zealand Hepaticae and Anthocerotae. New Zealand J. Bot. 1993; 31, 341-6.

DK Singh and SK Singh. Scanning electron microscopic studies on sporoderm of some Indian liverworth and hornworts. In: Proceedings of the World Bryology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2007, p. 291-316.

J Hasegawa. Distribution of Japanese species of Anthocerotae. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 1984; 56, 21-8.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/image012_400

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

http://wjst.wu.ac.th

Last updated: 20 June 2019