Factors Related with Sputum Smear Conversion Time among Tuberculosis Patients

Humberto Guanche GARCELL, Mirtha M. CASTANEDA, Mylene de los A Rodriguez ARTILES, Francisco Gutierrez GARCIA, Miguel A. Paulino BASULTO, Anel Perez ALEJO, Ariadna Villanueva ARIAS

Abstract


The article aims to determine the factors associated with smear sputum conversion in 64 patients with tuberculosis (TB) admitted at The Cuban Hospital (TCH) (Qatar). The patient characteristics at diagnosis (age, sex, smoking, alcohol, history of Diabetes mellitus or previous tuberculosis, and diagnostic's delay), nutritional indicators (Body mass index, Hemoglobin, lymphocytes count, iron, serum protein/albumin), platelet count, serial sputum, resistance to first line TB drugs, and radiological findings were collected. Kaplan Meier survival and log rank test or a Wilcoxon test were used. Significance level was set ≤ 0.05. The 75 % patients were below 39 years old (mean 32.61 years), male (78.1 %), non-smokers (90.6 %), no previous history of TB (96.9 %), 17.2 % had Diabetes mellitus. Diagnosis delay was over 30 days (65.6 %). Minimum smear conversion was 5 days and maximum 115 days (median: 30 days). The survival curves based on patient’s demographics, nutritional and radiological characteristics were not statistically significantly different. Regarding bacterial load, 50 days after starting treatment, the 2 patient´s group with ≤ 1000 bacilli had negative sputum. Patients who had > 1500 bacilli, yet after 100 days of treatment, had positive sputum (p = 0.02). Differences between groups with lower and higher bacilli count was significant (p = 0.04). Our data has shown that the main factor related to sputum conversion is the bacterial load, which will be useful to fix the case management of tuberculosis in Qatar.


Keywords


Tuberculosis, sputum conversion, bacterial load, factors associated, Qatar

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