Effect of Mole Percentage of Crosslinker of Silver-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) Hybrid Microgels on Catalytic Reduction of Nitrobenzene


  • Zahoor H. FAROOQI Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, New Campus, Lahore 54590
  • Shanza Rauf KHAN Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38000
  • Robina BEGUM Centre for Undergraduate Studies, University of the Punjab, New Campus, Lahore 54590
  • Tajamal HUSSAIN Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, New Campus, Lahore 54590
  • Nayab BATOOL Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, New Campus, Lahore 54590


Microgels, crosslinker, nitrobenzene


Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) microgels [P(NIPAM-co-AAc)] with 2, 4, 6 and 8 mole percentage of N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide were used as micro-reactors for the fabrication of Ag nanoparticles using the in situ reduction method. The pure and hybrid microgels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopies. Silver-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hybrid microgels [Ag-P(NIPAM-co-AAc)] with different crosslinker contents were used as catalysts for reduction of nitrobenzene (NB) in aqueous medium in order to investigate the effect of crosslinker content on the value of apparent rate constant (kapp). 0.041, 0.146, 0.2388 and 0.255 min-1 were found as values of kapp for catalytic reduction of NB using hybrid microgels with 2, 4, 6 and 8 mole percentage of crosslinker, respectively. The effect of crosslinker feed content of hybrid microgels on catalytic activity for reduction of NB was compared to that of reduction of p-nitrophenol in aqueous medium.



Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


A Panacek, L Kvitek, R Prucek, M Kolar, R Vecerova, N Pizurova, VK Sharma, TJ Nevecna and R Zboril. Silver colloid nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and their antibacterial activity. J. Phys. Chem. B 2006; 110, 16248-53.

S Kokura, O Handa, T Takagi, T Ishikawa, Y Naito and T Yoshikawa. Silver nanoparticles as a safe preservative for use in cosmetics. Nanomed. Nanotechnol. Bio. Med. 2010; 6, 570-4.

LS Lawson, JW Chan and T Huser. A highly sensitive nanoscale pH-sensor using Au nanoparticles linked by a multifunctional Raman-active reporter molecule. Nanoscale 2014; 6, 7971-80.

L Polavarapu, J Perez-Juste, QH Xu and LM Liz-Marzan. Optical sensing of biological, chemical and ionic species through aggregation of plasmonic nanoparticles. J. Mater. Chem. C 2014; 2, 7460-76.

J Santhanalakshmi and L Parimala. The copper nanoparticles catalysed reduction of substituted nitrobenzenes: Effect of nanoparticle stabilizers. J. Nanopart. Res. 2012; 14, 1-14.

N Pradhan, A Pal and T Pal. Silver nanoparticle catalyzed reduction of aromatic nitro compounds. Colloids Surf. A 2002; 196, 247-57.

S Carregal-Romero, J Pérez-Juste, P Hervés, LM Liz-Marzan and P Mulvaney. Colloidal gold-catalyzed reduction of ferrocyanate (III) by borohydride ions: A model system for redox catalysis. Langmuir 2009; 26, 1271-7.

J Pal, MK Deb, DK Deshmukh and BK Sen. Microwave-assisted synthesis of platinum nanoparticles and their catalytic degradation of methyl violet in aqueous solution. Appl. Nanosci. 2014; 4, 61-5.

F Tinnis, O Verho, KP Gustafson, CW Tai, JE Bäckvall and H Adolfsson. Efficient palladium‐catalyzed aminocarbonylation of aryl iodides using palladium nanoparticles dispersed on siliceous mesocellular foam. Chem. Eur. J. 2014; 20, 5885-9.

G Agrawal, MP Schürings, P van Rijn and A Pich. Formation of catalytically active gold–polymer microgel hybrids via a controlled in situ reductive process. J. Mater. Chem. A 2013; 1, 13244-51.

S Carregal-Romero, NJ Buurma, J Perez-Juste, LM Liz-Marzan and P Herves. Catalysis by Au@pNIPAM nanocomposites: Effect of the cross-linking density. Chem. Mater. 2010; 22, 3051-9.

L Chen, J Hu, Z Qi, Y Fang and R Richards. Gold nanoparticles intercalated into the walls of mesoporous silica as a versatile redox catalyst. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2011; 50, 13642-9.

Y Chen, C Wang, H Liu, J Qiu and X Bao. Ag/SiO2: A novel catalyst with high activity and selectivity for hydrogenation of chloronitrobenzenes. Chem. Commun. 2005; 42, 5298-300.

SR Khan, ZH Farooqi, M Ajmal, M Siddiq and A Khan. Synthesis, characterization and silver nanoparticles fabrication in N-isopropylacrylamide-based polymer microgels for rapid degradation of p-nitrophenol. J. Disp. Sci. Tech. 2013; 34, 1324-33.

J Davarpanah and AR Kiasat. Catalytic application of silver nanoparticles immobilized to rice husk-SiO2-aminopropylsilane composite as recyclable catalyst in the aqueous reduction of nitroarenes. Catal. Commun. 2013; 41, 6-11.

ZH Farooqi, A Khan and M Siddiq. Temperature‐induced volume change and glucose sensitivity of poly [(N‐isopropylacry‐lamide)‐co‐acrylamide‐co‐(phenylboronic acid)] microgels. Polym. Int. 2011; 60, 1481-6.

ZH Farooqi, W Wu, S Zhou and M Siddiq. Engineering of phenylboronic acid based glucose‐sensitive microgels with 4‐vinylpyridine for working at physiological pH and temperature. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 2011; 212, 1510-4.

H Naeem, ZH Farooqi, LA Shah and M Siddiq. Synthesis and characterization of p (NIPAM-AA-AAm) microgels for tuning of optical properties of silver nanoparticles. J. Polym. Res. 2012; 19, 1-10.

M Ajmal, ZH Farooqi and M Siddiq. Silver nanoparticles containing hybrid polymer microgels with tunable surface plasmon resonance and catalytic activity. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 2013; 30, 2030-6.

R Contreras‐Cáceres, J Pacifico, I Pastoriza‐Santos, J Pérez‐Juste, A Fernández‐Barbero and LM Liz‐Marzán. Au@pNIPAM thermosensitive nanostructures: Control over shell cross‐linking, overall dimensions, and core growth. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2009; 19, 3070-6.

RM Crooks, M Zhao, L Sun, V Chechik and LK Yeung. Dendrimer-encapsulated metal nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and applications to catalysis. Acc. Chem. Res. 2001; 34, 181-90.

Y Mei, Y Lu, F Polzer, M Ballauff and M Drechsler. Catalytic activity of palladium nanoparticles encapsulated in spherical polyelectrolyte brushes and core-shell microgels. Chem. Mater. 2007; 19, 1062-9.

S Wu, J Dzubiella, J Kaiser, M Drechsler, X Guo, M Ballauff and Y Lu. Thermosensitive Au-PNIPA yolk–shell nanoparticles with tunable selectivity for catalysis. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012; 51, 2229-33.

ZH Farooqi, SR Khan, T Hussain, R Begum, K Ejaz, S Majeed, M Ajmal, F Kanwal and M Siddiq. Effect of crosslinker feed content on catalaytic activity of silver nanoparticles fabricated in multiresponsive microgels. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 2014; 31, 1674-80.

A Pich, A Karak, Y Lu, AK Ghosh and HJP Adler. Tuneable catalytic properties of hybrid microgels containing gold nanoparticles. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2006; 6, 3763-9.

S Praharaj, S Nath, SK Ghosh, S Kundu and T Pal. Immobilization and recovery of Au nanoparticles from anion exchange resin: Resin-bound nanoparticle matrix as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Langmuir 2004; 20, 9889-92.

N Sahiner, H Ozay, O Ozay and N Aktas. A soft hydrogel reactor for cobalt nanoparticle preparation and use in the reduction of nitrophenols. Appl. Catal. B, 2010; 101, 137-43.

N Sahiner, H Ozay, O Ozay and N Aktas. New catalytic route: Hydrogels as templates and reactors for in situ Ni nanoparticle synthesis and usage in the reduction of 2-and 4-nitrophenols. Appl. Catal. A 2010; 385, 201-7.

ZH Farooqi, SR Khan, R Begum, F Kanwal, A Sharif, E Ahmed, S Majeed, K Ijaz and A Ijaz. Effect of acrylic acid feed contents of microgels on catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles fabricated hybrid microgels. Turkish J. Chem. 2015; 39, 96-107.

ZH Farooqi, S Iqbal, SR Khan, F Kanwal and R Begum. Cobalt and nickel nanoparticles fabricated p (NIPAM-co-MAA) microgels for catalytic applications. e-Polymers 2014; 14, 313-21.

Y Dong, Y Ma, T Zhai, F Shen, Y Zeng, H Fu and J Yao. Silver nanoparticles stabilized by thermoresponsive microgel particles: Synthesis and evidence of an electron donor-acceptor effect. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2007; 28, 2339-45.

K Vimala, KS Sivudu, YM Mohan, B Sreedhar and KM Raju. Controlled silver nanoparticles synthesis in semi-hydrogel networks of poly(acrylamide) and carbohydrates: A rational methodology for antibacterial application. Carbohydr. Polym. 2009; 75, 463-71.

T Zeng, XL Zhang, HY Niu, YR Ma, WH Li and YQ Cai. In situ growth of gold nanoparticles onto polydopamine-encapsulated magnetic microspheres for catalytic reduction of nitrobenzene. Appl. Catal. B 2013; 134, 26-33.

A Burmistrova, M Richter, C Uzum and R Klitzing. Effect of cross-linker density of P (NIPAM-co-AAc) microgels at solid surfaces on the swelling/shrinking behaviour and the Young’s modulus. Colloid. Polym. Sci. 2011; 289, 613-24.

Y Dong, Y Ma, T Zhai, Y Zeng, H Fu and J Yao. Incorporation of gold Nanoparticles within thermoresponsive microgel particles: Effect of crosslinking density. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2008; 8, 6283-9.

K Gawlitza, ST Turner, F Polzer, S Wellert, M Karg, P Mulvaney and R von Klitzing. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with thermoresponsive microgels: Influence of the cross-linker density on optical properties. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2013; 15, 15623-31.

I Varga, T Gilányi, R Meszaros, G Filipcsei and M Zrínyi. Effect of cross-link density on the internal structure of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels. J. Phys. Chem. B 2001; 105, 9071-6.

H Senff and W Richtering. Influence of cross-link density on rheological properties of temperature-sensitive microgel suspensions. Colloid. Polym. Sci. 2000; 278, 830-40.




How to Cite

FAROOQI, Z. H., KHAN, S. R., BEGUM, R., HUSSAIN, T., & BATOOL, N. (2015). Effect of Mole Percentage of Crosslinker of Silver-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) Hybrid Microgels on Catalytic Reduction of Nitrobenzene. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 12(12), 1147–1156. Retrieved from https://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/1493



Research Article