Phytochemical Constituents in Leaves and Callus of Ficus deltoidea Jack var. Kunstleri (King) Corner


  • Zakiah MUSAPHA AGROPOLIS UniSZA, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kampus Tembila, Besut Terengganu
  • Hazlan HARUN Jabatan Kimia Terengganu, Jalan Cherong Lanjut, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu


Callus, leaves, Ficus deltoidea, phytochemical constituents


Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytochemical constituents was done on leaves and leaf’s callus of Ficus deltoidea Jack var. kunstleri (King) Corner. Tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones and polyphenols were present in the leaves and callus cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) media supplemented with 0.8 mg/L 2,4-D + 0.7 mg/L Kinetin (KIN). Meanwhile, cardiac glycosides only exist in the leaves but not in the callus tissue. Quantitative analysis showed that alkaloids, saponins, phenols, flavonoids and tannins exist in both samples but in lower amounts for the callus tissue. The significance of the phytochemical constituents with respect to the role of this plant in traditional medicine treatment and the future prospect for callus in the production of secondary metabolites is discussed.



Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Zakiah MUSAPHA, AGROPOLIS UniSZA, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kampus Tembila, Besut Terengganu

Fakulti Pertanian, Bioteknologi dan Sains Makanan


F Starr, K Starr and L Loope. Ficus deltoidea, Available at:, accessed February 2009.

D Krishnaiah, T Devi, A Bono and R Sarbatly. Studies on phytochemical constituents of six Malaysian medicinal plants. J. Med. Plants Res. 2009; 3, 67-72.

O Benavente-Garcia, J Castillo, FR Marin, A Ortuno and JAD Rio. Uses and properties of citrus flavonoids. J. Agr. Food Chem. 1997; 45, 4505-15.

C Manach, A Scalbert, C Morand, C Rémésy and L Jiménez. Polyphenols: Food sources and bioavailability. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2005; 79, 727-47.

R Puupponen-Pimiä, L Nohynek, C Meier, M Kähkönen, M Heinonen, A Hopia and KM Oksman-Caldentey. Antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds from berries. J. Appl. Microbiol. 2001; 90, 494-507.

JB Harborne, H Baxter and GP Moss. Phytochemical Dictionary: Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. 2nd ed. Taylor & Francis, London, 1999.

AM Elizondo, EC Mercado, BC Rabinovtz and ME Fernandez-Miyakawa. Effects of tannins on in vitro growth of Clostridium perfringens. Vet. Microbiol. 2010; 145, 308-14.

VDD Luca and BS Pierre. The cell and developmental biology of alkaloid biosynthesis-reviews. Trend. Plant Sci. 2000; 5, 168-73.

C Rujjanawate, D Kanjanapothi and A Panthong. Pharmacological effect and toxicity of alkaloids from Gelsemium elegans Benth. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 89, 91-5.

T Murashige and F Skoog. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco cultures. Physiol. Plant. 1962; 15, 473-97.

HO Edeoga, DE Okwu and BO Mbaebie. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2005; 4, 685-8.

G Miliauskas, P Venskutonis, T Van-Berk. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chem. 2004; 85, 231-7.

Y Musa. Evolution of growth performance and yield potential of selected Emas Cotek (Ficus deltoidea) accessions on briss soil. J. Trop. Agr. Food Sci. 2006; 34, 229-35.

Y Musa, H Yahaya, WMW Zaki and A Zaharah. Emas Cotek-Tumbuhan ubatan baru yang amat berpotensi. Bul. Teknol. Tanam. 2005; 1, 29-36.

D Stauth. Studies Force New View on Biology of Flavonoids. Oregon State University, USA, 2007.

S Sotheeswaran, M Doyle and W Aalbersberg. Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific. WHO Regional Publications, WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila, Philippines, 1998.

M Taher. Free radical scavenging activity of some Malaysian medicinal plants. In: Proceedings of the 19th Commonwealth Pharmaceutical Association - Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society Pharmacy Scientific Conference 2007, Kuala Lumpur, 2007.

M Norhaiza, M Maziah and M Hakiman. Antioxidative properties of leaf extracts of popular Malaysian herb, Labisia pumila. J. Med. Plants Res. 2009; 3, 217-23.

M Hakiman and M Maziah. Non enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant activities in aqueous extract of different Ficus deltoidea accessions. J. Med. Plants Res. 2009; 3, 120-31.

KG Ramawat. Plant Biotechnology. 3rd ed. S Chand & Company, India, 2000.

A Matkowski. Plant in vitro culture for the production of antioxidants-A review. Biotechnol. Adv. 2008; 26, 548-60.

R Gala, G Mita and S Caretto. Improve of α-tocopherol production in plant cell cultures. J. Plant Physiol. 2005; 162, 782-4.

I Grzegorczyk and H Wysokińska. Antioxidant compounds in Salvia Officinalis L. shoot and hairy root cultures in the nutrient sprinkle bioreactor. Acta Soc. Botanicorium Poloniae 2010; 79, 7-10.




How to Cite

MUSAPHA, Z., & HARUN, H. (2014). Phytochemical Constituents in Leaves and Callus of Ficus deltoidea Jack var. Kunstleri (King) Corner. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 12(5), 431–439. Retrieved from