Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst <div> <p title="AGRICOLA"><a title="About WJST" href="/index.php/wjst/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> (<strong><em>Walailak J. Sci. &amp; Tech.</em></strong> or <strong>WJST</strong>), is a peer-reviewed journal (<a title="Editorial Board" href="/index.php/wjst/about/editorialTeam" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a>) covering all areas of science and technology, launched in 2004.<br><br><strong>E-ISSN:</strong> 2228-835X<br><strong>Start year:</strong> 2004<strong><br>Language:</strong> English<br><strong>Publication fee:</strong> <span style="color: #c00000;">Free of Charge</span> <br><strong>Free access:</strong> Immediate<br><strong><strong>Issues per year</strong>:</strong> 12 Issues (<strong><strong><span style="color: #c00000;">Monthly</span></strong></strong>)<br><br><strong>2018 SJR (SCOPUS): <span style="color: #c00000;">0.138 (Q4)&nbsp; </span></strong><strong><strong><img src="/public/site/images/admin/newdata12.gif" alt=""></strong></strong><br><br><strong>Aims and scope </strong><strong><br></strong><a title="Author Guidelines" href="/index.php/wjst/about/submissions#authorGuidelines" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> is published 12 Issues (<strong>Monthly</strong>) by the Institute of Research and Innovation of Walailak University. The scope of the journal includes the following areas of research: Natural Sciences, Life Sciences, Applied Sciences (<a title="WJST Template 2020" href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ee8XcWfkBsJCg2DUDGdGZDzvd5kQ-4su/view?usp=sharing" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WJST Template 2020</a>). 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left: -10000px; top: 57px; width: 1px; height: 1px; overflow: hidden;"><strong>Free of Charge</strong></div> Institute of Research and Innovation, Walailak University. en-US Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) 1686-3933 Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) Infection in Several Varieties and Ages of Tomato Plants (Lycopersicum esculentum, Mill.) http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/4248 <p>Disease caused by Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) is an important disease in tomato plants, and is transmitted through both natural and artificial wounds. TMV attacking tomato plants can cause qualitatively and quantitatively lower production. The decline in production by TMV attack can reach &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;60 %. This research was conducted at the greenhouse of the Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sriwijaya, Indralaya, Ogan Ilir, South Sumatra, Indonesia, from January to June 2016. The purpose of this study was to assess TMV attack on different varieties and ages of tomato plants. This study was conducted using a factorial in Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (FRCBD), with the first factor, namely plant varieties, and the second factor, age stage of plants, repeated 3 times. The results showed that the most susceptible tomato was “Permata”, with the fastest incubation period and moderate disease severity. Age 8 weeks, when inoculation took place, was the most vulnerable time, with the highest disease severity. A combination of the tomato variety of Permata and an age stage of 8 weeks at the time of inoculation had the highest disease incidence.</p> Nurhayati DAMIRI Amat NURKHOLIS Yulia PUJIASTUTI Supli Effendi RAHIM Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-09-03 2018-09-03 17 2 55 63 10.14456/vol16iss6pp%p A Computational Approach to Drug Discovery: Search for Chalcone Analogues as the Potential Candidates for Anti Colorectal Cancer (HT29) http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5910 <p>A series of 46 chalcone derivative compounds with their inhibitory activity against colorectal cancer were used as data set for developing the quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR). 2D QSAR and 3D QSAR models have been developed with high predictive ability with <em>r<sup>2</sup></em> and <em>r<sup>2</sup>(CV)</em> of 0.81 and 0.78, respectively. Results from the 2D and 3D quantitative structure activity relationship models indicate that electrostatic parameter enhanced bioactivity of the chalcone derivatives. Further, docking and molecular dynamic simulation was performed using 2wft PDB ID as the molecular target of colon cancer. Based on the docking, molecular dynamic, and biological assay, it is confirmed that compound <strong>2, </strong>cpd <strong>4, </strong>cpd <strong>21, </strong>cpd <strong>23</strong>, cpd <strong>27</strong>, cpd <strong>32</strong>, cpd <strong>38</strong>, and cpd <strong>39 </strong>show better activity (active) against colorectal cancer cells.</p> Neni FRIMAYANTI Ihsan IKHTIARUDIN Rahma DONA Tiara Tri AGUSTINI Fri MURDIYA Adel ZAMRI Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-22 2018-12-22 17 2 64 74 10.14456/vol17iss6pp%p Synthesis, Characterization and Antitumor Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticle from Agaricus bisporus Pileus, Basidiomycota http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5840 <p>The object of this study is to synthesize and characterize silver nanoparticles from <em>Agaricus bisporus</em> pileus extracts and their applications. <em>Agaricus bisporus</em>-mediated synthesis of AgNPs was characterized using changing the color solution, UV-Visible spectroscopy, SEM, AFM, SPM, FTIR spectrum, XRD, and EDS analyses. The change of the mixture color of 10<sup>-3</sup> M AgNO<sub>3 </sub>with the watery extract of fresh <em>A. bisporus</em> caps from colorless to brown color is an indicator for the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The UV-Visible spectrum exhibits the absorption peak at 418 nm. The FTIR spectra exhibited that the structures of amino acids, polysaccharides, and polyphenols in the crude extract of <em>A. bisporus</em> are not affected because of the joining and interaction of their functional groups with silver ions, and act as reducing and capping agents to the biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. SEM and EDS refer to the formation of AgNPs with irregular or spherical shapes. The XRD pattern exhibits face-centered cubic (fcc) silver nanocrystals, with crystalline AgNPs size of 43.9 nm. The biosynthesized AgNPs play a suitable role against mouse cell line, which has receptors for polioviruses (L20B). After exposure of the colloid AgNPs to UV radiation (256 nm), the absorption band transferred from 418 nm to 435 nm, indicating that UV rays affect on physical properties of AgNPs. Roughness average of the biosynthesized AgNPs from <em>A. bisporus </em>caps is 15.4 nm, but the roughness is increased after UV irradiation for 1 h to average 33.6 nm. Histograms of particle size distribution of AgNPs show the average of AgNPs is 103.57 nm, while the size of nanoparticles reaches 69.47 nm after exposure to UV radiation of 256 nm. The use of UV radiation leads to enhanced characteristics of silver nanoparticles.</p> Mustafa Nadhim OWAID Ghassan Adnan NAEEM Rasim Farraj MUSLIM Raheel Saeed OLEIWI Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-10-13 2018-10-13 17 2 75 87 10.14456/vol17iss5pp%p Effect of Semi-synthetic Andrographolide Analogue-loaded Polymeric Micelles on HN22 Cell Migration http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5515 <p>Semi-synthetic andrographolide (AG) analogue, namely 19-<em>tert</em>-butyldiphenylsilyl-8,17-epoxy andrographolide, or 3A.1, is an anticancer drug. However, the major problem of 3A.1 is poor water solubility hindering its clinical applications. To improve the water solubility and anticancer potency of this analogue, 3A.1-loaded polymeric micelles employing<em> N</em>-naphthyl-<em>N-O</em>-succinyl chitosan (NSCS) as amphiphilic copolymer were prepared by the dropping method. The morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency (%EE), and loading capacity (%LC) were evaluated. The 3A.1-loaded NSCS micelles were successfully prepared. These micelles were nano-size (66.26 to 102.53 nm) and with a spherical shape, with negative surface charge (-30.50 to -22.23 mV). The 3A.1-loaded NSCS micelles with 40 % drug loading exhibited the maximum values of both %EE (90.84 %) and %LC (25.95 %), indicating that a high amount of 3A.1 could be entrapped into the NSCS micelles. In addition, <em>in vitro</em> anticancer activity and cell migration assay on HN22 cells were evaluated. The 3A.1-loaded NSCS micelles exhibited stronger anticancer effect and cell migration suppression than the free drug. Therefore, these NSCS micelles containing 3A.1 may be potential nanocarriers for the treatment of oral cancer.</p> Teeratas KANSOM Rungnapha SAEENG Tanasait NGAWHIRUNPAT Theerasak ROJANARATA Prasopchai TONGLAIROUM Praneet OPANASOPIT Purin CHAROENSUKSAI Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-03 2018-12-03 17 2 88 95 10.14456/vol17iss7pp%p Adhesion Conditions of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum KAKii to Human Enterocyte-like Caco-2 Cell Lines http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/3258 <p>Attachment ability of bifidobacteria strains to the human intestinal surface is an important criterion as a probiotic candidate. However, attachment activity is influenced by external and internal conditions. This study was conducted to screen cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion scores of bifidobacteria strains. Attachment conditions (pH and exposure time) of selected strains to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell lines were subsequently investigated. Three different solvents (n-hexadecane, Toluene, and Xylene) were used in cell surface hydrophobicity analysis. Based on the results obtained, xylene presented consistent cell hydrophobicity activity in all strains used. <em>Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum</em> KAKii (wild type strain) gave promising cell hydrophobicity activity with no significant difference (p &gt; 0.05) when compared to <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> NBRC 3070 with xylene as a solvent, and also presented a significantly higher attachment score (p &lt; 0.05) compared to all strains used. The influence of pH and time exposure on adhesion of<em> B. pseudocatenulatum</em> KAKii to Caco-2 cells revealed that this strain was favored to attach to the intestinal cell line at pH 6 and after 120 min of exposure. Further optimization of attachment conditions will be carried out.</p> Mizanurfakhri GHAZALI Nurul Wahida SHOKHIMI Mazatulikhma MAT ZAIN Khalilah ABDUL KHALIL Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 17 2 96 102 10.14456/vol16iss7pp%p Endosulfan Increases IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α Production in Pregnant Rats and Causes Fetal Brain Cell Apoptosis http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5941 <p>Endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant commonly used as an insecticide in Indonesia. It has been reported to cause teratogenic effects, i.e., to decrease humoral activity, produce inflammation, and induce apoptosis in various type of cells. This study investigated the effect of endosulfan on the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α in rats (<em>Rattus norvegicus</em>), as well as the incidence of fetal brain cell apoptosis. This experiment was carried out on pregnant rats divided into 4 groups: negative control (I), endosulfan: 1 mg/kg (II), 10 mg/kg (III), and 50 mg/kg (IV). The solution of endosulfan was given daily during the 20-day test period. Rat serum was collected for the measurement of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α using the ELISA kit. Fetal rat brains were taken and stained with Annexin V for apoptosis detection. The proinflammatory cytokine levels in Groups II, III, and IV were higher than in Group I, with significant increases of IL-1β (p = 0.016), IL-6 (p = 0.009), IL-17 (p &lt; 0.001), and TNF-α (p &lt; 0.001). The intensity of Annexin V in 4 groups of rats showed that the incidence of apoptosis increased with increasing endosulfan doses. In conclusion, the administration of endosulfan in pregnant rats increased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α and triggered apoptosis in fetal brain cells.</p> Sri ANDARINI Asmika MADJRI Hidayat SUJUTI Romi ROMI Adi Surya PRATAMA IIndra Jabbar AZIS Elita RIYU Tarbiyah CATUR Febri ARIADI Asri MAHARANI Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-04-04 2019-04-04 17 2 103 112 10.14456/vol17iss9pp%p Human Saliva and Dried Saliva Spots as Source of DNA for PCR based HLA Typing using a Combination of Taq DNA Polymerase and AccuPrimeTaq Polymerase http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/4430 <p>Genomic DNA extracted from human saliva samples showed high inter-subject variations in DNA yield, compelling the need to explore a methodology for the accurate quantitation of the extracted genomic DNA. Quantitative assessment of DNA extracted from saliva was achieved using human coagulation factor XIII as an internal control for subsequent downstream applications of amplification of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes by PCR. The PCR signals for the HLA target genes, namely, HLA-A, -B, -C , DPB1, DQB1, and DRB1 of exons 2 and 3, improved greatly with the use of a combination of Taq DNA polymerase and AccuPrimeTaq DNA polymerase.&nbsp; We also describe a new method of using dried saliva spots (DSS) as an alternate source of genomic DNA for HLA typing. PCR-based typing of DNA from human saliva offers a potential method for HLA typing and amplification, and typing of DNA, thus presented, could be applied in forensic science to saliva samples recovered from crime scenes.</p> Prerana Madhusudhana MURTHY Anupama Cheleri NEDUVAT Cheemalamarri VEENADHAR Sudarson SUNDARRAJAN Sriram PADMANABHAN Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 17 2 113 127 10.14456/vol16iss7pp%p Effect of Cold Storage on Development of Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Braconidae: Hymenoptera) Reared on Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/3694 <p><em>Habrobracon hebetor</em> has been investigated as a successful biological control agent for larvae of pyralid moths in warehouses. Gaining new information on how to improve the storage procedure of <em>H. hebetor</em> under cold conditions could allow the development of approaches to maintain this parasitoid in pest management programs. This study investigated the effect of cold temperatures (10 and 15 °C) on the development of<em> H. hebetor</em> pupae reared on <em>Corcyra cephalonica</em>, which was kept for up to 3 weeks. Mortality of <em>H. hebetor</em> pupae during cold storage in all treatments was 4 - 19 %. Mortality of <em>H. </em><em>hebetor </em>adults emerging during cold storage at 10 °C (28 %) and 15 °C (61 %) was significantly observed at 21 days of storage, while other treatments were less than 4 %. Numbers of emerging adults after cold storage from 7 - 14 days were 89 - 96 %, and the female percentage ranged from 13 - 39 %. The number of eggs laid per female from the emerging females after cold storage for 7 - 14 days was not significant as compared to the control treatment (43 - 53 eggs per female) after laying for 72 h. The sex ratios of emerging adults in all cold storages and the control treatment at 72 h after emerging were not significant.</p> Atirach NOOSIDUM Weerachai SOMSRI Angsumarn CHANDRAPATYA Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-04-01 2018-04-01 17 2 128 138 10.14456/vol16iss7pp%p Cost-Effective TA Cloning Applied to Sanger Sequencing and HLA Allele Typing http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/4428 <p>Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technology for clinical HLA typing involves DNA Sanger sequencing of the PCR amplified products of polymorphic loci of HLA, such as HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPB1,-DQB1, and -DRB1, in support of unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The TA cloning of all the amplicons, followed by Sanger sequencing, provides a primary screening tool of potential organ donors, or to identify individuals who might have potential adverse drug responses. The Class I exon 2 and 3 genes of HLA was amplified as a single fragment and cloned into a TA cloning vector pTZ57R/T, while the Class II exon 2 and 3 amplified fragments were added together in a ligation mix with the vector pTZ57R/T. Positive clones were subjected to Sanger sequencing, and HLA alleles determined using the IMGT database. Results indicate that all the exons of the HLA genes by could be cloned by the strategies described. Furthermore, we were also successful in achieving the amplification of all the desired amplicons as a multiplex PCR, thereby reducing the cost of the modified method further by almost 60 %. We present a cost-effective TA cloning strategy for achieving accurate allele typing of HLA at 2- digit resolution. Taken together, an efficient cloning methodology with a significant lower cost for accurate HLA typing presented here is encouraging. The data suggests that it may be employed for routine cloning of variable targets in molecular biology applications.</p> Anupama Cheleri NEDUVAT Prerana Madhusudhana MURTHY Sudarson SUNDARRAJAN Sriram PADMANABHAN Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-06 2019-12-06 17 2 139 153 10.14456/vol16iss7pp%p Application of Biosurfactants in the Medical Field http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/4748 <p>It is generally known that both chemical substances and many kinds of microorganism can be used to produce surfactants or surface-active compounds. Surfactants derived from microorganisms are called biosurfactants, or bio-surface active compounds. Recently, biosurfactants have become more interesting because of their advantages, such as less toxicity and more degradability, which cannot be found in traditional surfactants. Biosurfactant production faces some problems, such as a high cost of production. In the medical field, biosurfactants are attractive, because the products from biosurfactants can be used effectively in small amounts. This can compensate for the high cost of production. In addition, there have been many great discoveries of biosurfactants in the medical field.</p> Atipan SAIMMAI Wiboon RIANSA-NGAWONG Suppasil MANEERAT Paweena DIKIT Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 17 2 154 166 10.14456/vol17iss9pp%p