Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst <div> <p title="AGRICOLA"><a title="About WJST" href="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> (<strong><em>Walailak J. Sci. &amp; Tech.</em></strong> or <strong>WJST</strong>), is a peer-reviewed journal (<a title="Editorial Board" href="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/about/editorialTeam" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a>) covering all areas of science and technology, launched in 2004.<br /><br /><strong>E-ISSN:</strong> 2228-835X<br /><strong>Start year:</strong> 2004<strong><br />Language:</strong> English<br /><strong>Publication fee:</strong> <span style="color: #c00000;">Free of Charge</span> <br /><strong>Free access:</strong> Immediate<br /><strong><strong>Issues per year</strong>:</strong> 12 Issues (<strong><strong><span style="color: #c00000;">Monthly</span></strong></strong>)<br /><br /><strong>2019 SJR (SCOPUS): <span style="color: #c00000;">0.154 (Q3) </span></strong><strong><strong><img src="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/newdata12.gif" alt="" /></strong></strong></p> <h3>Aims and Scope</h3> <p title="AGRICOLA"><a title="Author Guidelines" href="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/about/submissions#authorGuidelines" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> is published 12 Issues (<strong>Monthly</strong>) by the College of Graduate Studies of Walailak University. The scope of the journal includes the following areas of research: Natural Sciences, Life Sciences, Applied Sciences (<a href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1K4nWRs6-CmiSM5d-YI-0fNLCWqRboc-l/view?usp=sharing" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WJST Template 2020</a>). (<a title="Editorial Policies" href="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/about/editorialPolicies#custom-5" target="_blank" rel="noopener">View full editorial policies</a>)<strong><br /></strong></p> <h3><strong>Natural Sciences</strong></h3> <ul> <li class="show">Biochemistry</li> <li class="show">Biology</li> <li class="show">Chemical Engineering</li> <li class="show">Chemistry</li> <li class="show">Materials Science</li> <li class="show">Mathematics</li> <li class="show">Molecular Biology</li> <li class="show">Physics and Astronomy</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Life Sciences</strong></h3> <ul> <li class="show">Allied Health Sciences</li> <li class="show">Biomedical Sciences</li> <li class="show">Dentistry</li> <li class="show">Genetics</li> <li class="show">Immunology and Microbiology</li> <li class="show">Medicine</li> <li class="show">Neuroscience</li> <li class="show">Nursing</li> <li class="show">Pharmaceutics</li> <li class="show">Psychology</li> <li class="show">Public Health</li> <li class="show">Tropical Medicine</li> <li class="show">Veterinary</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Applied Sciences</strong></h3> <ul> <li class="show">Agricultural</li> <li class="show">Aquaculture</li> <li class="show">Biotechnology</li> <li class="show">Computer Science</li> <li class="show">Cybernetics</li> <li class="show">Earth and Planetary</li> <li class="show">Energy</li> <li class="show">Engineering</li> <li class="show">Environmental</li> <li class="show">Food Science</li> <li class="show">Information Technology</li> <li class="show">Meat Science</li> <li class="show">Nanotechnology</li> <li class="show">Plant Sciences</li> <li class="show">Systemics</li> </ul> <h3>Index and Abstracts</h3> <p title="AGRICOLA"><a title="Author Guidelines" href="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/about/submissions#authorGuidelines" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> is indexed in the <a title="TCI" href="http://www.kmutt.ac.th/jif/public_html/index.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Thai-Journal Citation Index Centre (TCI)</a>, <a title="Google Scholar" href="http://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;user=9E_wFm4AAAAJ" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>, <a title="AGRICOLA" href="http://www.cabdirect.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CAB Abstracts</a>, <a title="EBSCOhost" href="http://www.ebscohost.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EBSCOhost</a>, <a title="JournalSeek" href="http://journalseek.net/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalSeek</a>, <a title="ASEAN Citation Index (ACI)" href="http://www.asean-cites.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ASEAN Citation Index (ACI)</a>, <a title="ROAD: ISSN" href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2228-835X" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ROAD: the Directory of Open Access scholarly Resources</a> and <a title="SCOPUS" href="http://www.scopus.com/home.url" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>.</p> <table style="border-collapse: collapse; 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width: 100%;" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><a title="Scopus" href="http://www.scopus.com/home.url"><img src="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/Scopus_120x.png" /></a></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><a title="ROAD-ISSN" href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2228-835X" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/road-issn-120x.png" /></a></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h3>Sponsors and Support</h3> <table style="border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%;" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="Walailak University" href="http://www.wu.ac.th/en" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/wu-text-120x.jpg" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="Open Journal System" href="https://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/pkp-logo-120x.png" width="105" height="89" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="Thai Science Research and Innovation" href="https://www.trf.or.th/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/tsri-120x.png" width="64" height="96" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="Natiional Research Council of Thailand" href="https://www.nrct.go.th/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/NRCT-Logo-120x.jpg" width="42" height="60" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="journalseek" href="http://journalseek.net/"><img src="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/JournalSeek-120x.PNG" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="ThaiScience" href="http://www.thaiscience.info/view3.asp?sCode=WJST&amp;sType=JOURNAL" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/thaiscience-120x.png" width="94" height="36" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="SJR" href="https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=walailak+Journal+of+Science+and+Technology" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/sjr-logo-120x.png" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"> </td> <td style="width: 10%;"> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p title="AGRICOLA"> </p> <h3><strong>EDITOR IN CHIEF</strong></h3> <p title="AGRICOLA"><a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=w5rFb7YAAAAJ&amp;hl=en">Phongpichit Channuie</a>, School of Science, Walailak University, Thasala, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80161, Thailand</p> </div> <div id="_mcePaste" class="mcePaste" style="position: absolute; left: -10000px; top: 57px; width: 1px; height: 1px; overflow: hidden;"><strong>Free of Charge</strong></div> College of Graduate Studies, Walailak University. en-US Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) 1686-3933 Impacts of the 4th Industrial Revolution on Industries http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/7287 <p>The leap of technology has led to a paradigm shift called the “industrial revolution”. Industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution which implemented the philosophy of cyber-physical systems, internet and future-oriented technologies, and smart systems with promoted human-machine interaction paradigms. The emergence of Industry 4.0 was introduced to the world as a new trend to improve working surroundings in industries and solve the problems faced by the industries. There is a limited information about Industry 4.0 and not every person understands the real meaning of Industry 4.0. Thus, the objective of this review paper is to identify the possible impacts of Industry 4.0 on manufacturing industries which will encourage more organizations to adopt Industry 4.0.</p> Shahryar SOROOSHIAN Shrikant PANIGRAHI Copyright (c) 2020 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 17 8 903 915 Quality Assessment Criteria for Mobile Health Apps: A Systematic Review http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/6482 <p>Summative evidences on the criteria for user assessment of health apps are still limited. In order to determine an assessment method for mobile health apps, rigorous and appropriate criteria must be chosen. The aim of this study is to review the existing quality assessment criteria that are being used to assess the quality of mobile health apps focusing on users’ perspectives. In addition, a procedure for the quality assessment of health apps is also presented.</p> <p>A systematic review was conducted utilizing 5 databases; PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, CENTRAL and IEEE Xplore from 2008 to 2017. Search terms were; “mHealth”, “Applications”, “iOS OR Android”, “smartphones”, “quality”, etc. Papers that assessed the quality of health apps by users were selected. The PRISMA guideline was followed to complete the list of final studies. Likewise, a data extraction form was based on the PICO framework. From 6,514 studies, 69 studies met the eligibility criteria. Four hundred and forty-one quality assessment criteria for users were classified into 15 domains: Ease of use, Usability, Aesthetics, Connectivity, Functionality, Information, User satisfaction, Acceptability, Error occurrence, Motivation, Engagement, Data management, Undesirable events, Credentials and Security and privacy. An “ease of use” domain was found common in the included studies. The 15 domains were suggested as criteria for further study of the quality assessment and development of mHealth apps. Moreover, five recommended steps were presented for future research of quality of mobile health apps.</p> Wilasinee HONGSANUN Suppachai INSUK Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 17 8 745 759 The Design and Development of Sit to Stand Trainer for the Elderly http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/6145 <p>Strengthening exercise for lower limbs is required in elderly. Repeated sit to stands could improve lower limbs strength, reduce limitations, and fall. The researchers developed a Sit to Stand Trainer, a device that assists and offers variable levels of weight support for users to stand. It was validated by comparing the kinematics and the kinetics between 2 experimental conditions; the movement that was assisted by Sit to Stand Trainer (STST) and the natural movement that was unassisted by Sit to Stand Trainer (No STST). This study is an Experimental Design using Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The time span of the observed movement was 2.5 s for all trials. The results in kinematics showed significant similarity in trunk, hip, knee, ankle angles and angular velocities including speed and distance of head between No STST to STST (P = 0.000). However, in kinetics, the maximum of vGRFs showed significant decrease in STST compared to No STST (P = 0.000). This represent that this device produces natural movement and speed. It also supports and helps to reduce the body weight that contacted to the ground in order to stand up easier. Thus, therapists could possibly consider this device for training in clinical practice. This research was studied within 6 weeks into training with Sit to Stand Trainer. This part of the study is a Quasi-Experimental Designs using Paired Samples T-tests. The results of the T-tests were compared before and after the training. The results showed a significant improvement in physical outcomes measurement tests; Berg Balance Scale (P = 0.000), 30-second Chair Stand (P = 0.001) and 4-meter Gait Speed (P = 0.000) among the elderly.</p> Sairag SA-ADPRAI Bunyong RUNGROUNGDOUYBOON Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 17 8 760 775 Quality Assessment and In Vitro Anti-diabetic Activity of Thunbergia laurifolia Stems and Leaves http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5942 <p>The study aimed to evaluate pharmacognostic parameters for standardization of raw materials, <em>Thunbergia laurifolia</em> Lindl. (family: Thunbergiaceae) stems and leaves, as well as their active phytochemical (rosmarinic acid) contents. The antidiabetic potential was evaluated by yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity using p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Dried stems and leaves of <em>Thunbergia laurifolia</em> were collected from 15 different locations in Thailand. The microscopic anatomical and histological characteristics of stem and leaf were illustrated. The physico-chemical contents, including loss on drying, acid-insoluble ash, total ash, ethanol-soluble extractives, water-soluble extractives, and moisture of dried stems and leaves, were established. TLC-densitometry of rosmarinic acid in dried <em>T. laurifolia</em> stems and leaves were developed and revealed contents of 0.120 ± 0.079 and 0.291 ± 0.150 g per 100 g, respectively. Similarly, TLC-image analysis by ImageJ showed contents of 0.127 ± 0.094 and 0.303 ± 0.162 g per 100 g respectively (p &gt; 0.05). Both quantitative TLC demonstrated their validity due to specificity, accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and robustness. The antidiabetic potential of rosmarinic acid, <em>T. laurifolia</em> leaf and stem ethanolic extracts, and acarbose (positive control) exhibited IC<sub>50</sub> of 0.31, 0.80, 5.89, and 1.48 mg/ml, respectively.</p> Parichart HONGSING Chanida PALANUVEJ Nijsiri RUANGRUNGSI Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 17 8 776 787 Microbiological and Physicochemical Qualities of Moo Som (Traditional Thai Fermented Meat) Inoculated with Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5222 <p>The effects of different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculation on the fermentation rates and qualities of moo som, a traditional Thai fermented pork, were evaluated. <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> KL102 (spontaneous starter) and <em>L. plantarum</em> TISIR543 (commercial starter) were used as starter cultures in the production of moo som. The decreased amounts of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and coliforms in moo som inoculated with <em>L. plantarum</em> KL102 were at faster rates than those in Moo som inoculated with <em>L. plantarum</em> TISIR543. However, the final products of moo som inoculated with both LAB starters did not find <em>S. aureus</em> or and coliform loadings. Inoculation of both LAB starters could control growth of yeast in samples during fermentation. Furthermore, both starter cultures exhibited a higher rate of fermentation than the control (without inoculum), as demonstrated by the faster rate pH drop and acid production (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) during fermentation, while the fermentation of all samples were completed within 3 d. Due to higher acid production rate, texture, and especially hardness, gumminess and chewiness of inoculated moo som were higher than control moo som in the final products (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). From the results, the inoculation of LAB starter was more beneficial in color and in overall sensory evaluation (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). The overall quality was positively correlated with the color, odor, and texture of moo som (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.01). Based on microbiological and physicochemical qualities and sensory evaluation, KL102 is a potential LAB starter for moo som production.</p> Pussadee TANGWATCHARIN Jiraroj NITHISANTAWAKHUP Supaluk SORAPUKDEE Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 17 8 788 800 Diagnosis of Dieback Disease of the Nutmeg Tree in Aceh Selatan, Indonesia http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/4379 <p class="Default">Effective control disease measures require a great deal of knowledge about the pathogen, which is also applied to dieback disease of the nutmeg tree in Aceh Selatan District, Province of Aceh, Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to identify the causal agent of dieback disease on a nutmeg plantation and to assess the effect of drought stress on the development of dieback disease. Pathogen identification was carried out by observing the symptoms of infected plants, morphological characters of the isolated pathogens, Koch’s postulates, and molecular analysis and pure pathogen cultures. The samples were taken from an infected part of the nutmeg plant (twigs, stems, and roots) in 6 subdistricts at the center of the nutmeg plantation in Aceh Selatan. Koch's postulates were performed by using the mycelia of pathogens on 1-year-old nutmeg seedlings. Drought stress was simulated everyday, and then once every 2 weeks, to study the effect of drought stress on dieback. The results showed that there were 4 genera of fungal pathogens (<em>Botryodiplodia theobromae</em>, <em>Fusarium solani</em>, <em>Graphium euwallaceae</em>, and <em>Rigidoporus microporus</em>) out of 6 fungi associated with dieback disease. However, <em>B. theobromae </em>Pat. turned out to be the dominant fungi associated with dieback on the nutmeg tree in Aceh Selatan. Drought stress was proven to be a predisposing factor for explaining this problem epidemic in Aceh Selatan.</p> Susanna SUSANNA Meity Suradji SINAGA Suryo WIYONO Hermanu TRIWIDODO Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 17 8 801 810 Alkyd Printing Inks from Waste Frying Oil http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/6603 <p>Alkyd-based printing ink vehicles were successfully prepared from waste frying oil. Three alkyd resins were synthesized using different ratios of phthalic anhydride. Properties of the 3 prepared resins were measured and compared with virgin oil alkyd resin and commercial alkyd resin. Viscosities of the obtained ink vehicles ranged from 8.6 to 34.9 poises. The vehicles were also completely compatible with carbon black for formulating black printing inks. Preliminary properties of the 3 formulated inks were evaluated and compared with black printing ink prepared from virgin oil alkyd and commercial alkyd. The formulated inks had satisfactory viscosity and tackiness as properties suitable for a variety of printing applications. The 3 synthesized inks had rub resistance values ranging from 4.61 to 5.75 %, slightly higher than the rub resistance of virgin oil alkyd ink and commercial alkyd ink. Particle fineness and water tolerance properties of the 3 formulated inks were comparable with virgin oil alkyd ink and commercial alkyd ink. Results suggested that waste frying oil has potential application as a raw material in the printing ink industry.</p> Sivaphol PHUNPHOEM Onusa SARAVARI Pitt SUPAPHOL Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 17 8 811 824 The Effects of a Resilience Enhancing Nursing Program on Depression among Pregnant Teenagers http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/3630 <p>The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of the resilience enhancing nursing program (RENP) on resilience and depression among pregnant teenagers who received this program. A quasi experimental was conducted with 130 pregnant Thai women. Final analysis included 130 participants (Intervention n = 64 and control group n = 66). The RENP was delivered in three steps including; Step 1, establishing trusting relationships; Step 2, improving the resilience, and Step 3, monitoring and encouraging the resilience practice. The research instruments consisted of a demographic data questionnaire, and resilience and depressive program instruments, including a handbook and self-report. Research data were analyzed and displayed, providing percentage, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, independent t-test, paired t-test, and the repeated measures ANOVA.</p> <p>The findings showed a significant difference in depression by time alone (<em>p </em>= 0.001). However, there was no significant difference by group alone in depression (<em>p</em> = 0.969). This study revealed mean score on depression in the experimental group was not significantly lower than before entering the program at week 4 and week 8 (<em>p</em> = 0.870, <em>p</em> = 0.428). However, resilience showed difference in score over time between the experimental group and control group. There was a significant difference in resilience score by time alone (F = 10.523, <em>p </em>&lt; 0.001).</p> <p>The results can contribute to guiding nurses to enhance decrease in depression in pregnant teenagers in the earlier first trimester in antenatal care units. Nurse or nurse midwife should be concerned about the potential for early detection in the prenatal period and provide appropriate interventions to teenage mothers in the postnatal period.</p> Umaporn KUASIT Sopen CHUNUAN Urai HATTHAKIT Linda F. C. BULLOCK Copyright (c) 2020 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 17 8 825 837 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Inhibition of Tyrosinase Activity of Raphanus sativus var. caudatus Alef Extract http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5541 <p>This study was aimed to determine antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition effects of the pod of <em>Raphanus sativus</em> L. var. <em>caudatus</em> Alef extract. The compounds consisted in the extracts were identified by HPLC from standard peak comparison. Pod was extracted by using 2 different solvents-dichloromethane (DCM) and water. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on free radical scavenging (DPPH) activity and ferric reducing ability (FRAP) assay. The lightening effect was determined from the inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase <em>in vitro</em>. The results showed that DCM extract contained sulforaphene, protocatechuic acid, <em>p</em>-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid. The aqueous extract contained sulforaphene, protocatechuic acid, <em>p</em>-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, and <em>p</em>-coumaric acid. The DPPH<sup>·</sup> scavenging effect expressed as the IC<sub>50</sub> values for DCM and aqueous extracts were 883.38 ± 22.9 and 1,160.49 ± 22.30 µg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of aqueous extract (218.27 ± 0.010 µM FeSO<sub>4</sub> equivalent) was greater than DCM extract (166.34 ± 0.018 µM FeSO<sub>4</sub> equivalent) at the same concentration (2,000 µg/mL). However, both extracts showed lesser antioxidant activity than gallic acid, a positive control. DCM extract showed higher tyrosinase inhibitory effect than aqueous extract but lesser than kojic acid, a positive control. Both extracts at 2,000 µg/mL concentration exerted 42 and 19 % tyrosinase inhibition, respectively. In conclusion, the extraction solvent yielded different chemical constituents and thus the activities. The DCM extract exerted greater antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibition activity than the aqueous extract. The extract fractionation is required to get higher yields of bioactive compounds prior to further study and for cosmetics product development.</p> Panadda YONGPRADOEM Natthida WEERAPREEYAKUL Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 17 8 838 850 The Antiviral Activity of Andrographolide, the Active Metabolite from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees. against SARS-CoV-2 by Using Bio- and Chemoinformatic Tools http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/9728 <p>Due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, the virus has been wildly spread throughout the world and the number of infected patients has rapidly increased. More importantly, neither the official drug treatment nor the vaccine has been officially offered. These have considerably increased the public concerns internationally and nationally. Recently, there has been one question raised in the Thai society; “Could a common Thai herbal medicine namely <em>Andrographis paniculata</em> be used against SARS-CoV-2 infection?”. It is well-known that the plant has antiviral properties against wild ranges of viruses and the active metabolite is andrographolide. To date, there have only been a few studies investigating the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity from andrographolide. To provide a better understanding, this study was conducted by applying the advanced techniques in both computational biology and chemistry to evaluate the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of andrographolide. In this study, andrographolide was tested against two key enzymes of SAR-CoV-2 namely 3C main proteinase and RNA dependent RNA polymerase. The result here indicated that andrographolide could only inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 3C main proteinase as strong as lopinavir (the standard medicine), which has been recommended as the drug of choice to treat SARS-CoV-2 patient.</p> Thanet PITAKBUT Copyright (c) 2020 Walailak University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 17 8 851 866 Identification of Growth-related EST-derived Microsatellite Marker in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5629 <p>This study aimed at investigating growth-related, EST-derived microsatellite markers in Nile tilapia (<em>O. niloticus</em>). The link between alleles and genotypes of these makers was particularly examined, as well as the growth performances of the samples of offspring produced from the broodstocks of 5 different fishery stations in Thailand. A total of 25 families of offspring were reared to observe the growth performance for a period of 83 days. Fish samples in this study were divided into two categories according to average body weight: fast (+SD) and slow (-SD) growth. Then, the fins of the fish samples were employed to perform DNA analysis. From the fast and slow growth evaluations, 3 families, namely F1, F24 (from Chumphon) and F11 (from Petchaburi), were chosen for the association analysis. A total of 30 fishes with 5 samples from fast and slow growth of each family were utilized. Nineteen EST-derived microsatellite markers were used to genotype 30 DNA samples of the fast and slow growth fishes. Out of 19 loci, 14 loci (i.e., OMO392, OMO051, OMO097, OMO072, OMO327, OMO277, OMO122, OMO193, OMO198, OMO200, OMO335, OMO374, OMO049, and OMO069) were found polymorphic. Another 4 loci (i.e., OMO059, OMO068, OMO315, and OMO337) were observed as monomorphic. Based on the genotype data, there appeared to indicate a strong, significant relationship between allele and growth of the A3 allele of OMO392 locus in the fast growth group. However, no significant genotypes regarding 19 EST-microsatellite were found to be related with growth. This study suggests that the identified allele A3, which has designated the growth hormone related EST-derived microsatellite primer OMO392, can potentially be used to facilitate marker-assisted selection regarding the fast growth of <em>O. niloticus</em>.</p> Sk Md SaeefUlHoque CHISHTY Piyapong CHOTIPUNTU Sataporn DIREKBUSARAKOM Suwit WUTHISUTHIMETHAVEE Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 17 8 867 879 Brown Rice Extract Ameliorates Oxidative Status in Human Placental Cell Line (JEG-3) Induced by Cadmium Chloride http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5833 <p>Cadmium (Cd) can induce oxidative stress by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affect the antioxidant defense systems, leading to cellular damage. Supplementation with antioxidants may protect against Cd-induced oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the effect of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR), and white rice (WR) extracts against Cd-induced toxicity in human placenta (JEG-3) cells. The cytotoxicity of Cd and rice extracts was measured by MTT assay, and pre-treatments with GBR, BR, and WR before Cd exposure were examined. Intracellular ROS levels and the expression of SOD2 and GPx4 were determined by DCFH-DA assay and western blot, respectively. An antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used as a positive control. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of rice extracts were investigated by DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu methods, respectively. The GBR extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content, followed by BR and WR, respectively. Cd decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, whereas incubation with 0.1 - 0.5 mg/mL showed no toxicity in all rice extracts. Moreover, Cd treatments significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) increased ROS levels. Conversely, treatments with GBR and BR extracts decreased ROS. Similar results were observed for combinatorial treatments of GBR and BR with Cd, except for WR treatment. Additionally, significant increased SOD2 and decreased GPx4 expression levels were evident in the GBR group and in both GBR and BR pre-treated groups, respectively, compared to Cd exposure alone. These results suggest that brown rice pre-treatments may ameliorate oxidative status induced by Cd in cultured human placental cells.</p> Tantip BOONSONG Wajathip BULANAWICHIT Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 17 8 880 892 The Distribution of COVID 19 based on Phylogeny Construction in Silico Sequences SARS-CoV-2 RNA at Genbank NCBI http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/9814 <p>The Covid-19 pandemic, due to severe acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) virus, has an effect on human civilization today. With high fatality infections, SARS Covid-19 has influenced the global economic, socio-cultural, and even political order. This study aims to construct the phylogeny of the SARS corona virus that causes Covid-19 in various countries in the world by using the SARS Covid-19 gene database from the NCBI GenBank. The results of this study can trace the origin of SARS Covid-19, which is then called SARS-CoV-2, the gene characteristics, and the evolutionary relationship of these genes to various countries in the world. This research uses in <em>silico</em> method with gene sequence sources from the NCBI GenBank (www.ncbi.nih.gov). A total of 433 SARS Covid-19 sequences reported by 21 countries as of April 2rd, 2020 were the subject of the study. Sequences representing each country were analyzed using the MEGA 7.0 program. The results showed that the phylogeny trees formed were obtained by 2 main monophyletic groups. The first major monophyletic group consisted of 11 nodes, with 19 SARS-CoV-2 gene sequences from 23 countries. The second major monophyletic group consisted of 5 nodes with 5 countries of origin of SARS-CoV sequence 19. The spread of Covid-19 from the epicenter in Wuhan, China to the world has taken place randomly. This has happened because of the migration of people from the Chinese epicenter. The location of the countries adjacent to China did not determine the closest phylogenic relationship. The number of phylogenetic nodes formed showed mutases which caused very high variations of the SARS CoV 2 RNA gene sequence. The results of this study reinforce that efforts to limit the spread of human viruses to humans must be done. The presence of sequences from China in the 2 main monophyletic groups confirms that this virus originated in the Chinese epicenter.</p> Revolson Alexius MEGE Herry Sinyo SUMAMPOUW Dewa Nyoman OKA Nonny MANAMPIRING Yermia Semuel MOKOSULI Copyright (c) 2020 Walailak University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 17 8 893 902