Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst <div> <p title="AGRICOLA"><a title="About WJST" href="/index.php/wjst/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> (<strong><em>Walailak J. Sci. &amp; Tech.</em></strong> or <strong>WJST</strong>), is a peer-reviewed journal (<a title="Editorial Board" href="/index.php/wjst/about/editorialTeam" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a>) covering all areas of science and technology, launched in 2004.<br><br><strong>E-ISSN:</strong> 2228-835X<br><strong>Start year:</strong> 2004<strong><br>Language:</strong> English<br><strong>Publication fee:</strong> <span style="color: #c00000;">Free of Charge</span> <br><strong>Free access:</strong> Immediate<br><strong><strong>Issues per year</strong>:</strong> 12 Issues (<strong><strong><span style="color: #c00000;">Monthly</span></strong></strong>)<br><br><strong>2018 SJR (SCOPUS): <span style="color: #c00000;">0.138 (Q4)&nbsp; </span></strong><strong><strong><img src="/public/site/images/admin/newdata12.gif" alt=""></strong></strong><br><br><strong>Aims and scope </strong><strong><br></strong><a title="Author Guidelines" href="/index.php/wjst/about/submissions#authorGuidelines" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> is published 12 Issues (<strong>Monthly</strong>) by the Institute of Research and Innovation of Walailak University. The scope of the journal includes the following areas of research: Natural Sciences, Life Sciences, Applied Sciences (<a title="WJST Template 2020" href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ee8XcWfkBsJCg2DUDGdGZDzvd5kQ-4su/view?usp=sharing" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WJST Template 2020</a>). 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left: -10000px; top: 57px; width: 1px; height: 1px; overflow: hidden;"><strong>Free of Charge</strong></div> Institute of Research and Innovation, Walailak University. en-US Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) 1686-3933 Species Diversity and Structure of Wing Scales of Euploea and Papilio Butterflies from Phromlaeng, Nam Nao National Park, Phetchabun Province http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/4097 <p>This study focuses on species diversity of butterflies in the genera <em>Euploea</em> and <em>Papilio</em> in Nam Nao National Park. The butterflies were investigated every month for one year using insect nets. A total of 11 species, belonging to 2 genera and 2 families, were found. These were <em>E. algea</em>, <em>E. camaralzeman</em>, <em>E. core</em>, <em>E. midamus</em>, <em>E. mulciber</em>, <em>E. radamanthus</em>, <em>E. sylvester</em>, <em>P. helenus</em>, <em>P. memnon</em>, <em>P. nephelus</em>, and <em>P. paris</em>. The structure of the wing scales in different colour areas of 9 species was studied using a stereo microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The general structure of the wing scales of the butterflies of genus <em>Euploea</em>, independent of the colour it produces, is of longitudinal ridges, composed of tilted scutes, cross ribs that connect the ridges, and trabeculae, which link the cross ribs to the membrane of the wing scale’s upper lamina. In the <em>Papilio</em> species, there are 2 types of wing scales: one that exhibits blue-green iridescence and has wide-spaced ridges with concavities in between; and one displaying white, black, yellow, and red and has smaller widths between the ridges, with the space in between them containing a reticular pattern of cross ribs. The study of the wing scale microstructure of the butterflies in the <em>Euploea </em>and <em>Papilio</em> genera indicates that the patterns of the wing scale structure are genus-specific and that, despite showing similar colours, the wing scales are equipped with different mechanisms exemplifying diversity in structural coloration in nature.</p> Sukhum RUANGCHAI Sirikamon PHLAI-NGAM Nisarat TUNGPAIROJWONG Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-02-21 2018-02-21 17 3 167 180 10.14456/vol16iss7pp%p Cryopreservation of Dendrobium cruentum Rchb. f. Seeds by D Cryo-plate and V Cryo-plate Techniques http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/6159 <p><em>Dendrobium cruentum</em> Rchb. f. is a native Thai orchid species that has faced extinction because of its attractive characteristics. Consequently, conservation of this species is urgently needed. In this study, cryopreservation technique was applied to <em>D. cruentum</em> Rchb. f. seeds for long-term conservation. A successful protocol for <em>D. cruentum</em> Rchb. f. seed cryopreservation was developed by using D cryo-plate and V cryo-plate techniques. Seed viability was tested by TCC solution and 93.8 % of dyed seeds were shown. For cryo-plate technique, seeds were encapsulated over the cryo-plate by using 2 % (w/v) sodium alginate and polymerized with 100 mM CaCl<sub>2</sub>. Encapsulated seeds were desiccated by using a laminar airflow and PVS2 solution treatment with the same exposure time (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). After cryopreservation, encapsulated seeds were cultured on modified VW agar medium. From the results, the maximum germination and regrowth percentage were observed; D cryo-plate technique with 60 min of dehydration time gave the highest germination (68.9 %) and regrowth (57.8 %). Thus, the excess of dehydration may cause the reduction of germination and plant regeneration. In conclusion, D cryo-plate technique proved to be appropriate for <em>D. cruentum</em> Rchb. f. seed cryopreservation.</p> Sasikarn PRASONGSOM Kanchit THAMMASIRI Jarunya NARANGAJAVANA Siripong THITAMADEE Ngarmnij CHUENBOONNGARM Nathinee PANVISAVAS Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-04-04 2019-04-04 17 3 181 191 10.14456/vol17iss9pp%p In vitro Phytochemical, Larvicidal and Antimicrobial Activities of Gum Arabic Extract http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5540 <p>The Gum Arabic of <em>Acacia senegal </em>(GA) has been reported to treat several diseases, such as kidney failure and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disease. However, scarce investigation has been made into the phytoconstituents of GA. Obtained GA was macerated in water, then GA aqueous extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis using standard protocols and bioactivity screening by different procedures. Antimicrobial screening was performed using the cup-plate diffusion method against four bacterial strains and one fungi strain. The larvicidal activity was evaluated against the third instar of <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em>. The phytochemical analysis showed that GA extract contains high amounts of saponins and alkaloids, moderate amounts of cardiac glycosides, and trace amounts of tannins. GA extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against the test organisms, with different zones of inhibition ranging 0 - 18 mm. The larvicidal activity showed significant perfection with increasing extract dose and exposure period with mortality up to 86.7 %. Results reveal that the crude extract of GA contains important biomolecules which has been proved to have substantial larvicidal and antimicrobial activities.</p> Kauther Sir Elkhatim ALI Tanzeel Altaib Ali SALIH Hussien M. DAFFALLA Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-03 2018-12-03 17 3 192 199 10.14456/vol17iss5pp%p Recording Thirteen New Species of Phytoplankton in Euphrates River Environment in Iraq http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/6217 <p>Thirteen species of phytoplankton were recorded for the first time in the Upper Euphrates River environment in Iraq during the period from January to June 2017. Five locations were selected along the river (Jubba village, Al-Baghdadi district, Dollab village, Hit city and Ramadi city). Among the 13 taxa, seven species belonging to the Chlorophyta division were identified: <em>Excentrosphaera viridis, Monoraphidium caribeum</em>,<em> Nephrochlamys willeana</em>, <em>Oonephris palustris</em>, <em>Staurodesmus cuspidatus, Palmodictyon varium</em>, and <em>Westellopsis linearis</em>. Moreover, two species of the Chrysohyta division, <em>Rhizochrysis limnetica</em> and <em>Chrysidiastrum catenatum</em>, were recorded in the study area. Two species belonging to the Bacillariophyta division were <em>Acanthoceras zachariasii</em> and <em>Stenopterobia intermedia</em>, showing in the study area. One species belonging to the Cyanophyta division, <em>Stichosiphon sansibaricus</em>, was recorded in Hit and Ramadi, and one species of Euglenophyta (<em>Phacus orbicularis</em>) was also recorded. Some physicochemical properties of the water from these locations were measured, including water temperature values ranging from 8 - 13 °C; pH ranging from 7.22 - 7.58; EC ranging from 580 - 755 µS.cm<sup>-1</sup>, while salinity was 0.30 - 0.44 g.L<sup>-1</sup>. Nutrient, such as nitrates, and phosphate values ranged from 156 - 232 µg.L<sup>-1</sup> and 8.21 - 21 µg.L<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The presence of new phytoplankton in Iraqi freshwater confirms the quality of river water in this area. This study was carried out to contribute to the knowledge of freshwater phytoplankton in Iraq for the upper region of the Euphrates River and their tributaries.</p> Huda Abdullah ALI Mustafa Nadhim OWAID Shaimaa Fatih ALI Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-22 2019-07-22 17 3 200 211 10.14456/vol17iss9pp%p Newly Isolated High Squalene Producing Thraustochytrid Strain Aurantochytrium sp. P5/2 from Mangrove Habitats in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/6476 <p>Thraustochytrids are alternative potential sources of squalene, because they grow rapidly, are relatively easy to culture, and accumulate in large amounts. The objectives of this research were to isolate squalene-producing Thraustochytrids from fallen leaves in Paknakon Bay, including Paknakon Mangrove forest (N), Pakpanang Mangrove forest (P) and Thasala Mangrove forest (T), Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand, and to investigate their total lipid profile and squalene contents. A total of nine Thraustochytrid isolates were obtained.Morphological and molecular features revealed that those Thraustochytrids belonged to the genus <em>Aurantiochytrium</em> (N1, N14, P1/1, P5/2, P6/1, P43, T1, T26, and T42). Subsequently, they were cultivated and their cell dry weight, fatty acid compositions, and squalene contents were analyzed. At 96 h of cultivation, the dry cell weights ranged from 7.51 to 17.43 mg/g. The total lipid profile showed a broad spectrum of saturated fatty acids with an abundance of palmitic acid (16:0), 24.72 - 41.06 % TFA, pentadecanoic acid (15:0) 16.75 - 28.48 % TFA, heptadecanoic acid (17:0) 4.19 - 7.67 % TFA, lignoceric acid (24:0) 2.76 - 8.83 % TFA, myristic acid (14:0) 2.17 - 3.43 % TFA, stearic acid (18:0) 0.83 - 1.32 % TFA, arachidic acid (20:0) 0.19 - 0.33 % TFA, and behenic acid (22:0) 0.19 - 0.21 % TFA, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids, including Docosahexaaenoic acid (22:6; 8.59 - 35.99 % TFA), Clupanodonic acid (22:5, 2.24 - 8.94 % TFA), Arachidonic acid (20:4, 0.32 - 0.60 % TFA), Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, 0.19 - 0.62 % TFA), Linolenic acid (18:3, 0.12 - 0.18 % TFA), and Erucic acid (22:1; 0.02 - 0.09 % TFA) were also found. The squalene contents ranged from 0.06 to 4.78 mg/g. The highest biomass and squalene-accumulation was achieved from strain P5/2, which was identified as <em>Aurantiochytrium</em> sp.ม with a maximum yield of 4.78 mg/g at 96 h of cultivation.</p> Tarnhatai MALAWET Phuwadol BANGRAK Yuwadee PEERAPORNPISAL Niyom KAMLANGDEE Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 17 3 212 221 10.14456/vol17iss9pp%p Working Hazards and Health Problems among Rubber Farmers in Thailand http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/6075 <p>This study aimed to investigate the working hazards and health problems among rubber farmers in the southern part of Thailand. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was employed to identify the workers’ working hazards and health problems, workers’ postures, and the measurement of the intensity of light, lung function, and eye vision. Results indicated that 45.5 % of the rubber farmers were exposed to a chemical substance, 87 % were exposed to a scorpion, and 27.6 % had a high job strain. Furthermore, 43.8 % of the rubber farmers had a high ergonomic risk when collecting the rubber latex. However, the intensity of the headlamp had met the standard. Findings also revealed some common health problems among rubber farmers. These were musculoskeletal disorders (87.7 %), depression symptoms (15.7 %), and hand eczema (8.9 %). Additionally, nearly half of the Thai rubber farmers had an accident at work (45.1 %, while 22 % reported to have bitten by a poisonous animal. Lastly, 78.4 % of the rubber farmers had a low level of visual requirement and half of them had an abnormal lung function (57.2 %). These findings suggest a need for work process modifications to prevent health hazard in Thai rubber farmers.</p> Pimpisa SAKSORNGMUANG Orawan KAEWBOONCHOO Ratchneewan ROSS Plernpit BOONYAMALIK Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-10 2019-07-10 17 3 222 236 10.14456/vol17iss10pp%p Species Composition of Algal Epiphyton of Pink Lotus (Nymphaea pubescens Willd) Found in Laguna de Bay (Philippines) http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5015 <p>In spite of the fact that epiphytic algae are considered an important component of freshwater ecosystems, our knowledge of their diversity and distribution is still rather poor. Taxonomic study on the composition of epiphytic algae living on submerged leaf and root tissues of macrophyte <em>Nymphaea pubescens </em>Willd, found at Laguna de Bay (Philippines), was conducted. In total, 21 algal taxa were identified: 10 Cyanophyceae, 6 Trebouxiophyceae, and 5 Bacillariophyceae. The taxa described in this study represent 13 orders, 16 families, 18 genera, and 21 species based on the recent combined taxonomical approach. Of these taxa, the occurrence of a rare cyanobacteria, <em>Chroococcus schizodermaticus</em> West<strong>, </strong>is reported for the first time in the Philippines. One species is also reported here for the first time in the Philippines, based on current taxonomic nomenclature, and this is <em>Cyanothece aeruginosa </em>(Nägeli) Komárek, which is based on the former name of <em>Synechococcus aeruginosus </em>Nägeli. These taxonomic records are considered important basal information in enriching the knowledge about the diversity and habitat distribution of cyanobacteria and microalgae in macrophytes found in freshwater habitats in the Philippines.</p> Eldrin De Los Reyes ARGUELLES Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-04-04 2019-04-04 17 3 237 256 10.14456/vol17iss9pp%p Water Quality Measurements with a Simple Molecular Analysis (PCR-RFLP) of the Microbiome in a Metropolitan River System in Japan http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5869 <p>Urbanization has affected natural freshwater environments by contamination with sewage, toxic chemicals, and excess nutrients, which cause algal bloom, pollution, and ecosystem degradation. To ensure sustainable use of natural waters, appropriate monitoring methods are required. This study aims to investigate the diversity of the microbial community in a metropolitan river system in Japan using a low-cost DNA-based approach, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), as a potential bioindicator of environmental change. Surface waters were sampled in seven sites in a river system. Water chemical parameters and concentrations of heavy metals were determined. Microbial DNA was extracted from the samples, ribosomal RNA was amplified with universal primers, and RFLP was scored by agarose gels. Water chemical analyses showed that surface water at the inflow point of a sewage treatment plant had signs of eutrophication. Heavy metal concentrations in surface water were low (&lt; 0.01 ppm) in all sites. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed polymorphisms both in 16S and 18S rRNAs, indicating that the method can detect at least a part of the microbiome changes in a river system. Sequencing of some fragments found the sequence close to a ciliate isolated in wastewater treatment plants, implying contamination from sewage. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the RFLPs associated with chemical water parameters, which could be bioindicators of environmental pollution. We also found the RFLPs independent of water quality parameters, suggesting that this simple DNA-based analysis can also detect biological changes in water ecosystems that are not quantified by chemical measurements of water quality.</p> Liswara NENENG Rudy Agung NUGROHO Yukio KOMAI Naru TAKAYAMA Koji KAWAMURA Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-22 2019-07-22 17 3 257 268 10.14456/vol17iss9pp%p Factors Predicting Stress among Nurses in the Situation of Unrest of the Four Southern Border Provinces of Thailand http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5870 <p>Stress is a significant health problem among nurses working in areas of political unrest and war.&nbsp; It can pose a negative impact on local health systems. This study aimed to explore the relationship of factors and their ability to predict stress. Factors included the severity of the situation of unrest, sense of coherence, commitment, self-efficacy, and social support that exists among nurses in these situations. The subjects were 300 nurses selected by multi-stage random sampling. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s product-moment correlation, and stepwise multiple regression. The results indicated that the severity of the situation of unrest was positively significantly associated with stress among nurses at a high level (r = .527, p &lt; .01) and sense of coherence (r = - .272, p &lt; .01) was negatively significantly associated with stress among nurses at a low level.The severity of the situation of unrest, sense of coherence, and social support together predicted 32.2 % of the variance in stress among nurses. The severity of the situation of unrest was the most significant predictor of stress (27.7 %), followed by sense of coherence (3.4 %) and social support (2.1 %). Two factors associated with stress were the severity of the situation of unrest and sense of coherence, and three factors that predicted stress among nurses were the severity of the situation of unrest, sense of coherence, and social support. The findings can be used as basic data for nursing administrators to plan actions to prevent and deal with stress among nurses in situations of unrest by focusing on such predicting factors.</p> Nidarat CHOOWICHIAN Darawan THAPINTA Hunsa SETHABOUPPHA Petsunee THUNGJAROENKUL Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-04-04 2019-04-04 17 3 269 284 10.14456/vol17iss10pp%p Salt Stress-Responsive Protein Interaction in Hordeum vulgare http://wjst.wu.ac.th/index.php/wjst/article/view/5029 <p>Salt stress affects crop productivity by altering the biology of the plant and limiting productivity. <em>Hordeum vulgare</em> is the most tolerant cereal crop, with rich genetic resources. The underlying molecular mechanism involved in salt stress response is yet to be comprehensively addressed. A total of 305 proteins are involved in the network. We attempted to find relationships between a few representative stress-responsive proteins of osmotic (pip1), ionic (K<sup>+</sup>/Na<sup>+</sup> ratio in the leaf sheath, HvHAK, HAK4, NHX1 and Ha1), and oxidative stress (APX, CAT1, SOD1) from the public protein database to identify the most influential protein in the network. Further, the salt response proteins were analyzed for their enriched protein domains, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, molecular functions, and cell localization. The graph theory analysis of the large data could provide clues for the identification of potential biomarkers for salt stress in barley. An experiment was performed in three accessions of <em>H. vulgare</em> to identify the reliability of the theoretical network relationship in biological systems. The expression of the above-mentioned proteins was further experimentally proven based on the expression and assay.</p> Rajeswari SOMASUNDARAM Somasundaram ARUMUGAM Neeru SOOD Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-22 2019-07-22 17 3 285 292 10.14456/vol17iss9pp%p