Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) 2020-07-10T15:26:54+07:00 Editor of Walailak J Sci & Tech Open Journal Systems <div> <p title="AGRICOLA"><a title="About WJST" href="/index.php/wjst/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> (<strong><em>Walailak J. Sci. &amp; Tech.</em></strong> or <strong>WJST</strong>), is a peer-reviewed journal (<a title="Editorial Board" href="/index.php/wjst/about/editorialTeam" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a>) covering all areas of science and technology, launched in 2004.<br><br><strong>E-ISSN:</strong> 2228-835X<br><strong>Start year:</strong> 2004<strong><br>Language:</strong> English<br><strong>Publication fee:</strong> <span style="color: #c00000;">Free of Charge</span> <br><strong>Free access:</strong> Immediate<br><strong><strong>Issues per year</strong>:</strong> 12 Issues (<strong><strong><span style="color: #c00000;">Monthly</span></strong></strong>)<br><br><strong>2019 SJR (SCOPUS): <span style="color: #c00000;">0.154 (Q3)&nbsp; </span></strong><strong><strong><img src="/public/site/images/admin/newdata12.gif" alt=""></strong></strong><br><br><strong>Aims and scope </strong><strong><br></strong><a title="Author Guidelines" href="/index.php/wjst/about/submissions#authorGuidelines" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> is published 12 Issues (<strong>Monthly</strong>) by the College of Graduate Studies of Walailak University. The scope of the journal includes the following areas of research: Natural Sciences, Life Sciences, Applied Sciences (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WJST Template 2020</a>).&nbsp;(<a title="Editorial Policies" href="/index.php/wjst/about/editorialPolicies#custom-5" target="_blank" rel="noopener">View full editorial policies</a>)<strong><br></strong></p> <p title="AGRICOLA"><strong>Indexed and Abstracts</strong><br><a title="Author Guidelines" href="/index.php/wjst/about/submissions#authorGuidelines" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> is indexed in the <a title="TCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Thai-Journal Citation Index Centre (TCI)</a>, <a title="Google Scholar" href=";user=9E_wFm4AAAAJ" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>, <a title="AGRICOLA" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CAB Abstracts</a>, <a title="EBSCOhost" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EBSCOhost</a>, <a title="JournalSeek" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalSeek</a>, <a title="ASEAN Citation Index (ACI)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ASEAN Citation Index (ACI)</a>,&nbsp; 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width: 100%;" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><a title="Scopus" href=""><img src="/public/site/images/admin/Scopus_120x.png"></a></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><a title="ROAD-ISSN" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/road-issn-120x.png"></a></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;">&nbsp;</td> <td style="width: 12.5%;">&nbsp;</td> <td style="width: 12.5%;">&nbsp;</td> <td style="width: 12.5%;">&nbsp;</td> <td style="width: 12.5%;">&nbsp;</td> <td style="width: 12.5%;">&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p title="AGRICOLA"><strong>Sponsors and Support</strong><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <table style="border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%;" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="Walailak University" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/wu-text-120x.jpg"></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="Open Journal System" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/pkp-logo-120x.png" width="105" height="89"></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="Thai Science Research and Innovation" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/tsri-120x.png" width="64" height="96"></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="Natiional Research Council of Thailand" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/NRCT-Logo-120x.jpg" width="67" height="96"></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="datacite" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/DataCite_logo-120x.png" width="110" height="110"></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="journalseek" href=""><img src="/public/site/images/admin/JournalSeek-120x.PNG"></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="ThaiScience" href=";sType=JOURNAL" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/thaiscience-120x.png"></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="SJR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/sjr-logo-120x.png"></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;">&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p title="AGRICOLA"><br><strong>Editor in Chief</strong><br><a href=";hl=en">Phongpichit Channuie</a>, School of Science, Walailak University, Thasala, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80161, Thailand</p> </div> <div id="_mcePaste" class="mcePaste" style="position: absolute; left: -10000px; top: 57px; width: 1px; height: 1px; overflow: hidden;"><strong>Free of Charge</strong></div> Extraction and Isolation of Compound from Roots of Kniphofia pumila, and Its Antibacterial Activities in Combination with Zinc Chloride 2020-06-30T16:25:24+07:00 Dele ABDISSA Gezahegn FAYE Melkamu FAYERA Shiferaw DEMISSIE <p><em>Kniphofia pumila </em>has been traditionally used for the treatment of different diseases in Oromiya regional state, western part of Ethiopia. Thus, the main objective of this study was to extract bioactive natural products from the roots of <em>K. pumila </em>and perform<em> in vitro </em>antibacterial activity tests against selected pathogens. Extraction of compound from<strong> t</strong>he roots of <em>K. pumila </em>was carried out by maceration method at room temperature and its antibacterial activity was done using agar disc diffusion method. The crude extracts alone and along with ZnCl<sub>2</sub> were tested against pathogenic bacteria <em>Escherichia</em><em> coli </em>(ATCC 25722)<em>, </em><em>Klebsiella</em> <em>pneumoniae</em> subsp. <em>pneumoniae</em> (DSM 19613), <em>Staphylococcus </em><em>aureus</em> (ATCC 25925) and <em>Salmonella Typhimurium </em>(ATCC 13311). Following its promising activity, the acetone crude extract that have shown better antibacterial activity was subjected to column chromatography for isolation of pure compound. Hence, one pure compound (GZ-<strong>1</strong>) was obtained from acetone crude extract. Meanwhile, the antibacterial activities of the isolated compound alone and in combination with ZnCl<sub>2</sub> were also performed against all aforementioned bacterial strains. Then, isolated compound was characterized by using NMR spectroscopic techniques such as <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, <sup>13</sup>C-NMR and, 2D NMR, so as to establish its structure as 3’-acetyl-2’,6’-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone, trivial name knipholone. Finally, GZ-<strong>1 </strong>was isolated from the roots of <em>K. pumila </em>and it was noted that the antibacterial activities of ZnCl<sub>2</sub> in combination with crude extract as well as with isolated compound against <em>E. coli </em>(ATCC 25722),<em> S. aureus </em>(ATCC 25925) and <em>S. Typhimurium</em> (ATCC 13311) bacterial strains showed remarkable results which were greater than the antibacterial activity of the positive standard drug (gentamycin). To sum up, from the chromatographic isolation of roots acetone extract of <em>K. pumila </em>one pure compound (knipholone) was obtained. Its antibacterial activity was also evaluated in combination with ZnCl<sub>2</sub> salt and alone.</p> 2020-07-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) New Constructions of Balanced Boolean Functions with Maximum Algebraic Immunity, High Nonlinearity and Optimal Algebraic Degree 2020-06-30T16:34:28+07:00 Dheeraj Kumar SHARMA Rajoo PANDEY <p>This paper consists of proposal of two new constructions of balanced Boolean function achieving a new lower bound of nonlinearity along with high algebraic degree and optimal or highest algebraic immunity. This construction has been made by using representation of Boolean function with primitive elements. Galois Field, &nbsp;used in this representation has been constructed by using powers of primitive element such that greatest common divisor of power and &nbsp;is 1. The constructed balanced &nbsp;variable Boolean functions achieve higher nonlinearity, algebraic degree of , and algebraic immunity of&nbsp; &nbsp;for odd , &nbsp;for even . The nonlinearity of Boolean function obtained in the proposed constructions is better as compared to existing Boolean functions available in the literature without adversely affecting other properties such as balancedness, algebraic degree and algebraic immunity.</p> 2020-07-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) Dehydrostephanine Isolated from Stephania venosa Possesses Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated RAW264.7 Macrophages 2020-07-09T08:58:25+07:00 Wanatsanan CHULRIK Chutima JANSAKUN Waraluck CHAICHOMPOO Janejira HATA Poonsit HIRANSAI Wilanee CHUNGLOK Tanyarath UTAIPAN Apichart SUKSAMRARN Warangkana CHUNGLOK <p><em>Stephania venosa</em> (Blume) Spreng. is a medicinal herb wildly used as a folklore medicine in Thailand. Many studies have reported that <em>S. venosa </em>tuber revealed a variety of pharmacological activities including anti-malarial, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of (–)-stephanine and dehydrostephanine isolated from <em>S. venosa </em>tuber on anti-inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. RAW264.7 cells were treated with (–)-stephanine and dehydrostephanine in the presence of LPS and cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The levels of inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined by Griess reagent and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Pre-treatment of dehydrostephanine significantly suppressed NO secretion in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells with the half-maximal NO inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) value of 26.81±0.25 μM. However, (–)-stephanine had IC<sub>50</sub> value on the inhibition of NO secretion of &gt;40 μM. In addition, dehydrostephanine at concentrations of 20 - 80 μM significantly reduced LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1b, and interleukin-6 production in RAW264.7 cells. The present study showed that dehydrostephanine possesses the anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages by suppression of inflammatory mediators. Dehydrostephanine may be a promising candidate compound for further investigation of a novel class of anti-inflammatory drug.</p> 2020-07-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) Prediction of Rheological Properties and Interfacial Tension of Mixtures of Immiscible Polypropylene-Polystyrene (PP3/PS) Blends 2020-07-09T09:11:49+07:00 Meriem BOUDOUKHANI Nadji MOULAI-MOSTEFA Salim HAMMANI <p>Blends of polypropylene (PP3) and polystyrene (PS) were studied and, their rheological behavior was determined and discussed in detail. The interfacial tension between the blend components was evaluated from the rheological data and the storage modulus by using two well-known models: Palierne model and Choi-Schowalter equation. The theoretical predictions were compared with experimental data obtained from PP3/PS blends. The obtained results showed that the Palierne model could predict the rheological and viscoelastic properties of the considered polymer blends. In addition, the interfacial tensions between PP3 and PS were evaluated and compared with those cited in the literature. It was also found that the Palierne model was more accurate than Choi-Schowalter one in determining the interfacial tension.</p> 2020-07-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Giant Featherback (Chitala lopis) and Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) Bone Gelatins and Their Potential as Gelling agents in Gel Mixtures for Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Soft Jelly Candies 2020-07-09T09:27:33+07:00 Yuliani Bambang Tri AGUNG Marwati Krishna Purnawan CANDRA <p>The gel strength of gelatin depends on its raw material. Fish gelatin shows a broad range of gel strengths. Giant featherback and mackerel bone gelatins have the gel strengths 220 and 38 Bloom, respectively. Here, we prepared roselle soft jelly candy using the single gelatin and mixtures gelatins from bovine, giant featherback, and mackerel sources. Roselle calyces extract has been used as a food additive to improve taste, aroma, and antioxidant content. The soft jelly candies (1.5 % w/v roselle extract and 12 % gelling agent) were prepared using three types of gelatin (giant featherback (GF), mackerel (M), and bovine (B)) in four mixtures (GF:B = 1:3, GF:B = 1:1, M:B = 1:3, and M:B = 1:1). This experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications for each treatment. Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the jelly candies were determined. The data were analyzed by ANOVA continued by the LSD test. The results showed that water content, pH, gel strength, hardness, rigidity, and hedonic quality (taste, color, texture, and overall performance) of the roselle soft jelly candies were affected by choice of gelatin, but not total reducing sugar. Roselle soft jelly candy made with giant featherback and bovine gelatin (1:3) mix was the most preferred by the panelists.</p> 2020-07-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) Differences in Viscoelasticity of Ophthalmic Polymer Solution after Sterilization 2020-07-09T14:18:43+07:00 Yotsanan WEERAPOL Pornsak SRIAMORNSAK <p>Polymer solution has been used for increasing viscosity of ophthalmic solution in order to prolong the retention of active drug in the eye. The ophthalmic solution must be sterilized, which may affect the rheology properties of viscosity-inducing polymers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sterilization treatment on viscosity-inducing agents (i.e., poloxamer, polyvinyl alcohol; (PVA), methyl cellulose (MC), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and carbomer). The effect of membrane filtration and steam sterilization or autoclaving (121 °C, 15 Ib/inch<sup>2</sup>, 15 min) were determined. A rheometer was used to investigate the viscosity and viscoelastic properties between treated and untreated polymer solutions. The power law model, consistency index (k), and power law index (n) of polymer solution viscosity were compared. For viscoelastic properties, storage modulus and loss modulus were examined. The results demonstrated that, viscosity of carbomer and MC solution (1 and 2 %) were changed after steam sterilization. No difference in viscosity was observed for PVP, PVA and poloxamer solution, between untreated and treated samples. The storage and loss moduli of PVA solution after autoclaving were not different when comparing with the untreated polymer solution. From this study, it could be concluded that the sterilization treatment influenced the viscosity behavior and viscoelastic properties of polymer solution used as viscosity-inducing agent in ophthalmic solution. Therefore, the selection of polymer and sterilization method should be carefully considered.</p> 2020-07-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) Biodegradation of Polyvinyl Alcohol by Thai Indigenous Mixed Microbial Culture 2020-07-10T08:15:52+07:00 Duangkhaetita KANJANASOPA Benchamaporn PIMPA Suraphon THITITHANAKUL Suwaluk WISUNTHORN <p>PVA is biodegradable plastic and a water-soluble synthetic polymer that plays a significant role in industry. A large amount of PVA in wastewater causes heavy environmental pollution in terms of accumulation, disposal, and long-term degradation; therefore it must be removed from wastewater before the water is discharged. In this study, NS3 mixed microbial culture, capable of completely degrading 5 g.L<sup>-1</sup> polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), was isolated from landfill soil using the enrichment culture method. It completely degraded PVA at an initial concentration in the range 1 - 5 g.L<sup>-1</sup> over 5 - 20 days of incubation with continuous shaking at 30 °C. Moreover, mixed microbial cultures were found to remove PVA at a high range concentration of 10 - 25 g.L<sup>-1</sup>. Urea and glucose added to the medium inhibited PVA degradation by increasing the pH to a strongly alkaline level, which would cause cell viability and enzyme stability. The FT-IR spectra and SEM imaging revealed the mechanisms and the physical degradation of PVA films, respectively. PVA uptake in bacterial cells produced a dent in the cell surface, which represented the consumption of PVA by bacterial cell. The PVA-degrading mixed microbial culture is the first reported in Thailand and can be beneficial in PVA wastewater treatment.</p> 2020-07-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) Acute Toxicity of Cypermethrin on Nile tilapia Fry 2020-07-10T08:25:24+07:00 Anan KENTHAO Wanchat SIRISARN Pornpimol JEARRANAIPREPAME <p>The present study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity effect of cypermethrin contaminated aquatic ecosystems by using a 30 days post-hatching fry of Nile tilapia as a test model. The control and six test experiments, each comprising 10 animals, were repeated three times and evaluated with the static test method. The lethal concentrations at 50 % (LC<sub>50</sub>) and 70 % (LC<sub>70</sub>) for 96 h were determined using the probit analysis. Behavioural and histological changes were observed in fish exposed with cypermethrin at both 96 h LC<sub>50</sub> and 96 h LC<sub>70</sub>. The values of 96 h LC<sub>50</sub> and 96 h LC<sub>70 </sub>were estimated at 32.496 and 40.311 ppb, respectively. The affected fish exhibited the loss of equilibrium with erratic and darting swimming movements, hyperactivity, secretion of mucous and increasing rate of opercula activity. Severity of histopathological lesions were related to concentration levels and exposure times. The histological changes of gill tissues included the swelling of epithelial cells and the fusion of secondary lamella. An enlargement of sinusoids, pyknotic nuclei, vacuole formation and degeneration in hepatic parenchyma were observed in liver. The degeneration of glomerulus combining with oedema of renal tubule was also noticed in kidney. No alter lesion was seen on skin tissue. The results in the present study suggest that low levels of cypermethrin in the aquatic environment may alter adverse effect on growth and development in Nile tilapia.</p> 2020-07-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) Molecular Interactions and Binding Free Energy of Polydopamine and Methylene Blue: A DFT Study 2020-07-10T08:38:44+07:00 Kunlanat SRIPHUMRAT Phattaraporn THONGSAMAI Montra CHAIRAT Pilan SAENSUK Nawee KUNGWAN Supaporn DOKMAISRIJAN <p>Polydopamine (PDA) is a kind of mussel-inspired material. It has been applied as a coating and an adsorbent material. As an adsorbent, the PDA microspheres were used to remove methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. It was reported that the efficiency of the PDA adsorbent depends on the pH of the solution. Furthermore, in a pH range of 3 - 10, the hydroxyl and amine functional groups of PDA can be either protonated or deprotonated. The change of the net charge of PDA can affect the intermolecular interactions between PDA and MB. It was proposed that both of the electrostatic and p-p interactions should be dominant in the acidic and basic solutions. Therefore, the structural properties and intermolecular interactions of the PDA-MB complex should be investigated. Such an investigation can be useful for the improvement of the PDA microspheres for the other dyes. To get insight into the roles of PDA structure and its role as an interesting adsorbent for MB, the PDA-MB complex formation was carried out at pH 7. The PDA dimers which have six possible structures were selected. The optimization of all PDA dimers and MB was performed in the gas phase at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations. After that, the complex formation of the optimized PDA dimers and MB was performed using the AutoDock Vina V1.1.2. The binding free energy of the PDA dimers and MB was in a range of -3.2 to -3.7 kcal/mol, which indicated that the binding of PDA dimer and MB is spontaneous. The results showed that the p-p interaction between PDA dimer and MB plays a crucial role in the complex formation. Likewise, the sandwich-like structures of the complexes are more stable than the twisted structures.</p> 2020-07-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) Theses and Capstone Projects Plagiarism Checker using Kolmogorov Complexity Algorithm 2020-07-10T15:26:54+07:00 Marco Jr. DEL ROSARIO Julius SARENO <p>In education, students attempt to copy previous works and are relying on prepared solutions available on the Internet in order to meet their requirements. This action leads to plagiarism, which is becoming part of educational institutions’ concern to reduce growing academic dishonesty. With regards to the aforementioned issue, this study aims to design and develop a plagiarism checker capable of registering documents, granting access to users, and calculating the similarity between documents. Thus, the software was constructed using HTML, PHP, JavaScript, CSS, and MySQL. The developed system is composed of three main modules; the Document Search which enables users to browse documents, the Document Registration which enables the administrator to add and manage the stored documents, and the document Comparison, which serves as the system plagiarism detection mechanism. The algorithm Normalized Compression Distance was used to measure similarity and the Boyer-Moore Algorithm to highlight the suspected plagiarized document. Moreover, tests were conducted to determine if the system is functioning as expected and to measure the accuracy of the output produced by the system. The developed system was evaluated using the ISO 25010 software quality model in terms of Product Quality and was rated by one hundred respondents. The system obtained a mean of 4.70 which is equivalent to “excellent” in descriptive terms. This validates that the objectives of the study were met and achieved. This further indicates that the system was developed according to its desired functions and requirements.</p> 2020-07-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST)