Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) 2020-10-01T00:00:00+07:00 Editor of Walailak J Sci & Tech Open Journal Systems <div> <p title="AGRICOLA"><a title="About WJST" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> (<strong><em>Walailak J. Sci. &amp; Tech.</em></strong> or <strong>WJST</strong>), is a peer-reviewed journal (<a title="Editorial Board" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a>) covering all areas of science and technology, launched in 2004.<br /><br /><strong>E-ISSN:</strong> 2228-835X<br /><strong>Start year:</strong> 2004<strong><br />Language:</strong> English<br /><strong>Publication fee:</strong> <span style="color: #c00000;">Free of Charge</span> <br /><strong>Free access:</strong> Immediate<br /><strong><strong>Issues per year</strong>:</strong> 12 Issues (<strong><strong><span style="color: #c00000;">Monthly</span></strong></strong>)<br /><br /><strong>2019 SJR (SCOPUS): <span style="color: #c00000;">0.154 (Q3) </span></strong><strong><strong><img src="" alt="" /></strong></strong></p> <h3>Aims and Scope</h3> <p title="AGRICOLA"><a title="Author Guidelines" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> is published 12 Issues (<strong>Monthly</strong>) by the College of Graduate Studies of Walailak University. The scope of the journal includes the following areas of research: Natural Sciences, Life Sciences, Applied Sciences (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WJST Template 2020</a>). (<a title="Editorial Policies" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">View full editorial policies</a>)<strong><br /></strong></p> <h3><strong>Natural Sciences</strong></h3> <ul> <li class="show">Biochemistry</li> <li class="show">Biology</li> <li class="show">Chemical Engineering</li> <li class="show">Chemistry</li> <li class="show">Materials Science</li> <li class="show">Mathematics</li> <li class="show">Molecular Biology</li> <li class="show">Physics and Astronomy</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Life Sciences</strong></h3> <ul> <li class="show">Allied Health Sciences</li> <li class="show">Biomedical Sciences</li> <li class="show">Dentistry</li> <li class="show">Genetics</li> <li class="show">Immunology and Microbiology</li> <li class="show">Medicine</li> <li class="show">Neuroscience</li> <li class="show">Nursing</li> <li class="show">Pharmaceutics</li> <li class="show">Psychology</li> <li class="show">Public Health</li> <li class="show">Tropical Medicine</li> <li class="show">Veterinary</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Applied Sciences</strong></h3> <ul> <li class="show">Agricultural</li> <li class="show">Aquaculture</li> <li class="show">Biotechnology</li> <li class="show">Computer Science</li> <li class="show">Cybernetics</li> <li class="show">Earth and Planetary</li> <li class="show">Energy</li> <li class="show">Engineering</li> <li class="show">Environmental</li> <li class="show">Food Science</li> <li class="show">Information Technology</li> <li class="show">Meat Science</li> <li class="show">Nanotechnology</li> <li class="show">Plant Sciences</li> <li class="show">Systemics</li> </ul> <h3>Index and Abstracts</h3> <p title="AGRICOLA"><a title="Author Guidelines" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Walailak Journal of Science and Technology</a> is indexed in the <a title="TCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Thai-Journal Citation Index Centre (TCI)</a>, <a title="Google Scholar" href=";user=9E_wFm4AAAAJ" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>, <a title="AGRICOLA" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CAB Abstracts</a>, <a title="EBSCOhost" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EBSCOhost</a>, <a title="JournalSeek" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalSeek</a>, <a title="ASEAN Citation Index (ACI)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ASEAN Citation Index (ACI)</a>, <a title="ROAD: ISSN" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ROAD: the Directory of Open Access scholarly Resources</a> and <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>.</p> <table style="border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%;" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><a title="Thai Journal Citation Index" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" /></a></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><a title="Asean Citation Index" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" /></a></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><a title="gs" href=";user=9E_wFm4AAAAJ" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" /></a></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><a title="CabAbstract" href=""><img src="" /></a></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img src="" /></a></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><img src="" /></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><img src="" /></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%;" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><a title="Scopus" href=""><img src="" /></a></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"><a title="ROAD-ISSN" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" /></a></td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> <td style="width: 12.5%;"> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h3>Sponsors and Support</h3> <table style="border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%;" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="Walailak University" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="Open Journal System" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" width="105" height="89" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="Thai Science Research and Innovation" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" width="64" height="96" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="Natiional Research Council of Thailand" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" width="42" height="60" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="journalseek" href=""><img src="" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="ThaiScience" href=";sType=JOURNAL" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" width="94" height="36" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"><a title="SJR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" /></a></td> <td style="width: 10%;"> </td> <td style="width: 10%;"> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p title="AGRICOLA"> </p> <h3><strong>EDITOR IN CHIEF</strong></h3> <p title="AGRICOLA"><a href=";hl=en">Phongpichit Channuie</a>, School of Science, Walailak University, Thasala, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80161, Thailand</p> </div> <div id="_mcePaste" class="mcePaste" style="position: absolute; left: -10000px; top: 57px; width: 1px; height: 1px; overflow: hidden;"><strong>Free of Charge</strong></div> Dementia Community Screening Program in District Health Area 11: Phase 1 2020-07-12T14:47:22+07:00 Tharin PHENWAN Weeratian TAWANWONGSRI Phanit KOOMHIN Udomsak SAENGOW <p>To estimate the prevalence of dementia among Thai elderly in the upper Southern region of Thailand, we performed a cross-sectional screening of all Thai older people from 2 areas of Nakhon Si Thammarat province: Tambon Baan Thungchon, Tha Sala district, and Moo 6 and 7 from Sichon district, from December 2016 to November 2017. Trained health volunteers identified the participants in their communities and collected data including age, gender, comorbidities, Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) results, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. Our sample comprised 773 participants, of which 605 (78.3 %) were from Baan Thungchon area, while 168 were from Moo 6 and Moo 7 of Sichon district. The majority of participants were female (431, 55.7 %). The mean age of the participants was 79 ± 9.1 years, with a minimum age of 60, and a maximum age of 95. Their comorbidities were hypertension (42.9 %), type II diabetic mellitus (33.2 %), dyslipidemia (37.5 %), and osteoarthritis of the knees (35.8 %). 35.1 % of them also had positive TUGT. Sixty-seven participants (8.7 %) scored 7 or lower in the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT). Five participants (7.5 %) had a positive screening for dementia.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) The Effects of Childbirth Preparation Nursing Intervention Integrating Islamic Praying Program on Duration of Labor and Neonatal Outcomes in Primiparous Muslim Women 2019-10-17T22:12:50+07:00 Desmawati Waraporn KONGSUWAN Warangkana CHATCHAWET <p>Fear and anxiety in labor pain may increase the duration of labor (prolonged labor) and is one of the reasons for cesarean section in first time mothers (primiparous women). Prevention could be implemented through a childbirth preparation program with childbirth education on positioning, breathing, stroking, and Islamic praying conducted from pregnancy until labor room with family support. An experimental study design was conducted with 83 participants randomly assigned into an intervention group (<em>n</em> = 41) and control group (<em>n</em> = 42) to examine the effect of nursing interventions integrating an Islamic praying (CPNsIIIP) program on duration of active phase of labor and neonatal outcomes. The experimental group received the usual care and the program from 32 weeks of pregnancy by providing childbirth education then practice it at home every day until childbirth. In the labor room, the women recited 14 verses of the Quran, stroking, positioning during inter contractions, and just breathing during contractions of the active phase of labor at the Bhinneka Bhakti Husada Hospital and Community Health Center Pamulang, Indonesia. The control group received only the usual care. Duration of labor was measured in minutes, and neonatal outcomes were measured using the APGAR (Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration) scale and complication of fetus after birth by collaborating with doctor. An Independent<em> t</em>-test was conducted to determine the between group effect of the program. Findings showed that duration of the active phase of labor was significantly shorter in the experimental group than in the control group after receiving the program (<em>t</em> = 7.51; <em>p </em>= 0.00) and improved the neonatal outcomes, except for the APGAR scores of the babies; at 1 and 5 min, the experimental group were 8.8 ± 0.4 and 8.79 ± 0.4 (<em>p</em> &gt; .05). The program in this study clearly indicated positive effects on shortening of the active phase of labor, with no complications of neonatal outcomes, in primiparous Muslim women.</p> 2020-09-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) New Theory of Light and Resolution of the Abraham-Minkowski Controversy 2020-04-09T08:58:51+07:00 Adnan Salih AL-ITHAWI <p>The Abraham-Minkowski controversy about the momentum of light in media has been debated for over a century and has been informed by many distinguished distributions, both theoretical and experimental. We show that both the Abraham and Minkowski forms of momentum are need to be modified according to the new theory of light. We prove that the total momentum of a photon in matter is the same as compared with that in free space by using the new relations between energy and mass of light with refractive index.</p> <p> </p> 2020-09-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) Quality of Life of Older People with Dementia in Thailand 2019-10-17T22:11:20+07:00 Linchong POTHIBAN Rojanee CHINTANAWAT Nahathai WONGPAKARAN Chomphoonut SRIRAT Khanokporn SUCAMWANG <p>The quality of life (QOL) of older people with dementia may depend on their care environment. This cross-sectional descriptive study aims to investigate the QOL of Thai older people with dementia in homes for the aged and those living in their own homes in the community, as well as the discrepancy between the QOL rated by the older people and by caregivers. The samples included 342 participants who met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected using the Quality of Life-Alzheimer’s Disease Scale (QOL-AD) and the EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) Questionnaire Thai Version Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t test, and Pearson’s correlation. The findings revealed that the overall QOL scores of participants in both groups were at a moderate level. Compared with participants in homes for the aged, those living in the community showed higher scores in 7 aspects of QOL-AD, including physical health, energy, living situation, memory, self as a whole, ability to do chores, and ability to make life fun, but lower scores in the aspects of family/members and marriage/closed persons. Self-rated and caregiver-rated scores were significantly different in the aspects of living situation, memory, relationship with family, and marriage/closed persons. The findings imply that health care professionals can also assess the QOL of older people with dementia through self-rating. Further research to find the most effective method for enhancing older peoples’ QOL is needed.</p> 2020-09-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) Assessment of Optimal Infusion Condition for Thunbergia laurifolia Tea by using Response Surface Methodology 2019-10-17T22:09:43+07:00 Piyanuch ROJSANGA Puriwat JIEWATAKUNTUM Waree LIMWIKRANT Kotchaphan CHOOLUCK <p>According to the National List of Essential Medicines of Thailand, the <em>Thunbergia laurifolia</em> (TL) tea is categorized as antipyretic and detoxifying herbal medicine. This tea has also been used for the treatment of drug addiction and smoking cessation. However, suggested infusion conditions were varied which may result in variations in extracted active contents and bioactivities. In this study, the infusion condition that maximized extraction of caffeic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA), the major markers of TL tea, was assessed by using response surface methodology (RSM). The contents of markers were analyzed by a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method. To evaluate the extraction efficiency, the marker contents obtained by preparing the tea under the optimal condition were compared to those obtained by aqueous extraction process. The results demonstrated that the marker contents varied considerably according to infusion variables; time, temperature and volume (150 - 250 mL). By using RSM, it was successfully found that the optimal condition for the tea (3 g) was as follows: 200 mL of boiling water and infusion time of 10 min. More importantly, by using infusion method, the major portion of markers remained in the tea powder implying poor extraction efficiency of the method. This result suggested that the use of TL extract would be benefit in terms of quality and efficacy. The optimal infusion condition could be utilized in clinical studies to find an effective oral dose range of markers. Ultimately, the obtained information could be used to determine the oral dose of TL extract.</p> 2020-10-18T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) Preliminary Study on Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqueous Crude Extract of Allium ascalonicum against Ethanol-induced Liver Injury in Mice 2020-06-17T15:53:30+07:00 Sakaewan OUNJAIJEAN Voravuth SOMSAK <p>Ethanol-induced liver injury is an aggravated liver disease with a diverse spectrum from steatosis to hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Epidemiological studies reveal that ethanol-induced liver injury has become one of the most intense threats to global health. Therefore, this study investigated the hepatoprotective property of <em>Allium ascalonicum</em> extract against ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Aqueous crude extract of <em>A. ascalonicum</em> bulbs was prepared, and acute toxicity was, then, carried out in mice. The results indicated that <em>A. ascalonicum</em> extract at the dose up to 2,000 mg/kg/day did not cause mortality and liver injury as indicated by non-significant differences in AST, ALT, GGT, and ALP levels, compared to healthy control within the monitoring period. For <em>in vivo</em> efficacy test, the experimental mice were orally administered with 50 % (v/v) ethanol for 14 consecutive days, then further treated with the extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) once a day for another 7 consecutive days. Significant, dose-dependent decrease of AST, ALT, GGT, and ALP levels was observed in ethanol-induced liver injury mice treated with <em>A. ascalonicum</em> extract. The present study clearly demonstrated that the aqueous crude extract of <em>A. ascalonicum</em> bulbs exert a hepatoprotective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury in the mice model. <em>A. ascalonicum</em> extract might be a promising remedy to treat alcoholic liver disease.</p> 2020-10-17T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mapping Potential Planting Areas for Golden Camellias in North Vietnam 2020-04-09T08:59:09+07:00 Tran Van DO Tran Duc MANH Nguyen Van TUAN Phung Dinh TRUNG Nguyen Toan THANG Dang Van THUYET Dao Trung DUC Mai Thi LINH Ninh Viet KHUONG Vu Tien LAM Nguyen Huu THINH Hoang Thanh SON Trinh Ngoc BON Ho Trung LUONG Vu Van THUAN Nguyen Thi Thu PHUONG <p>This study mapped potential areas for planting golden camellias in Cao Bang province, North Vietnam. Natural conditions (elevation above sea level, annual precipitation, and annual air temperature), where 6 golden camellia species (<em>Camellia impressinervis, C. kirinoi, C. megasepala, C. tuyenquangensis, C. hamyenensis</em>, and <em>C. tienii</em>) naturally distribute, were used for mapping. Three map layers (topography, precipitation, and air temperature) were used. Each main condition was classified into 3 levels for planting, “not suitable”, “suitable”, and “very suitable”. The results indicated that 1,970 ha, accounting for 0.3 % of the total land area of Cao Bang province, was classified as “very suitable” for planting golden camellias. “Suitable” areas counted for 62.7 %, and “not suitable” areas accounted for 37 % of the total land area, respectively. Mapping suitable planting areas is the 1st step for the successful planting of any species. It is recommended that golden camellias should be first planted in very suitable areas, after which planting may be extended to some suitable areas.</p> 2020-10-19T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST) Antibacterial Activity of Lupinifolin from Derris reticulata and Its Effect on Cytoplasmic Membrane of Methicillin Resistant 2020-06-17T21:43:12+07:00 Kamol YUSOOK Pettaya PANVONGSA <p>Lupinifolin from <em>Derris reticulata</em> Craib. was extracted with hexane by Soxhlet extractor and purified by crystallization. The yellow needle-shaped lupinifolin crystals were identified and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The lupinifolin showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 8 and 16 µg/ml against Methicillin resistant <em>S. aureus </em>(MRSA), respectively. The flow cytometry (FCM) was performed to determine the alteration of cytoplasmic membrane (CM) permeability of MRSA by using Propidium iodide (PI) 5 µg/ml as an indicator for bacterial membrane integrity. It was found that the bacterial CM permeability was effected by lupinifolin with the MIC of 8 µg/ml comparable to the control when investigated by Propidium iodide intensity. Additionally, DNA laddering assay was carried out to evaluate apoptosis in bacterial cells. It was shown that the lupinifolin has no effect on DNA fragmentation.</p> 2020-10-17T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Universal Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (UMPCR-RFLP) for Rapid Detection and Species Identification of Fungal and Mycobacterial Pathogens 2020-06-17T16:12:27+07:00 Jidapa SZEKELY Sureerat CHELAE Natnicha INGVIYA Weerapan RUKCHANG Sauvarat AUEPEMKIATE Kumpol AIEMPANAKIT <p>Fungal and mycobacterial skin infections are common in immunocompromised patients and patients with febrile neutropenia, since the patients’ ability to control localized infection is diminished by the disease. The similarity of the lesions caused by these organisms conduces to difficulty of differential diagnosis. Although a histopathological examination and a microbial culture are standard methods for laboratory diagnosis of skin infection, the methods have drawbacks. Histopathological examination yields low positive results, while microbial culture is time-consuming and might result in no growth, causing delayed treatment. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an in-house rapid polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the detection and identification of fungal and mycobacterial pathogens in resource-limited laboratories. A total of 26 typed species of human pathogenic fungi and 12 species of mycobacteria were used. Strain differentiation was analyzed by using multiplex PCR-RFLP. The internal transcript spacer region (ITS) of fungi and heat-shock protein 65 (<em>hsp</em>65) gene of mycobacteria were amplified using ITS1-ITS4 and Tb11-Tb12 universal primers, respectively. The RFLP patterns were examined at genus-specific and species-specific level. No cross-amplification was observed between fungal and mycobacterial tested strains, nor any specific binding between primers and human DNA. It was concluded that the multiplex PCR-RFLP method developed in this study can be used as a molecular diagnostic test for fungal and mycobacterial species identification. In the future, this technique may be useful for detecting fungal and mycobacterial infection directly from clinical specimens.</p> 2020-10-17T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Anti-Hyperlipidemia and Anti-obesity Properties of Garcinia atroviridis and Camellia sinensis Extracts in High-Fat Diet Mice 2020-06-17T17:05:26+07:00 Anawat KONGCHIAN Narissara KEAWBOONLERT Thanchanok BOONRAK Sarai LOOKYEE Krittiyaporn BUASRI Nassaree SURONGKUL Jitbanjong TANGPONG <p>Hyperlipidemia and obesity are risk factors that contribute to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension among the world’s population. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of green tea (<em>Camellia sinesis</em>) and Garcinia (<em>Garcinia atroviridis</em>) extracts in high-fat diet mice. The mice were fed with a high-fat diet and orally administrated extracts once daily. The extracts displayed a significant decrease in body weight, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, atherosclerosis index (AI), and glucose levels in blood. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol significantly increased. Treatment with the extracts reduced the lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), and indicated the pathohistology of lower fat cells deposited in liver tissues. In <em>in vitro</em> studies, the extracts have been identified to be capable of inhibiting the activity of amylase and glucoside enzymes and scavenging free radicals<em>.</em> Moreover, both green tea and Garcinia extracts showed non-toxicity as presented by the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). In conclusion, the pathogenic factors involved in atherosclerosis were reduced by green tea and Garcinia extracts, and both extracts could be useful for better prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.</p> 2020-10-17T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Emergence of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern Thailand† 2020-06-17T21:32:31+07:00 Prerit Upadhyaya ARYAL Benjamas THAMJARUNGWONG Kamonnut SINGKHAMANAN Paramee THONGSUKSAI Natnicha INGVIYA Varaporn LAOHAPRERTTHISAN Rungtip DARAYON Mingkwan YINGKAJORN <p>Carbapenem-resistant <em>Enterobacteriaceae </em>(CRE) is emerging as a major problem in healthcare settings globally, including Thailand, due to limited therapeutic options. We reported the detection, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, and the presence of carbapenemase genes of CRE isolates obtained from Songklanagarind Hospital between July 2012 and June 2015. A total of 273 non-duplicated CRE isolates was recovered from 248 patients. The predominant organism was <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (183 [67.0 %]), followed by <em>Escherichia coli</em> (38 [13.9 %]). The susceptibility to 13 antibiotics was performed by disk diffusion assay. Most of the CRE isolates remained susceptible to amikacin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of carbapenems were determined by E-test. The MIC<sub>50</sub> and MIC<sub>90</sub> were varied among genera and species. Multiplex PCRs for the carbapenemase genes <em>bla</em><sub>IMP</sub>, <em>bla</em><sub>VIM</sub>, <em>bla</em><sub>OXA-48</sub>, <em>bla</em><sub>NDM-1</sub>, <em>bla</em><sub>KPC</sub>, and <em>bla</em><sub>GES</sub> were performed. One hundred and seventy-eight out of these 273 CRE isolates (65.2 %) harbored either single or multiple carbapenemase genes. One hundred and fifty nine isolates harbored the <em>bla</em><sub>NDM-1</sub> gene (113 <em>K. pneumoniae</em>, 25 <em>E. coli</em>, 17 <em>E. cloacae</em>, 2 <em>Citrobacter freundii</em>, 1 <em>Enterobacter aerogenes</em>, and 1 <em>Pantoea agglomerans</em>), 7 isolates carried <em>bla</em><sub>IMP</sub> (4<em> K. pneumoniae</em>, 2 <em>C. freundii</em>, and 1 <em>E. cloacae</em>), 7 isolates possessed<em> bla</em><sub>OXA-48</sub> (1 <em>K. pneumoniae</em>, 5 <em>E. coli</em>, and 1 <em>E. aerogenes</em>), whereas 3 and 2 isolates harbored <em>bla</em><sub>NDM-1</sub> and <em>bla</em><sub>IMP </sub>(2<em> K. pneumoniae</em> and 1 <em>E. cloacae</em>) and <em>bla</em><sub>NDM-1</sub> and<em> bla</em><sub>OXA-48</sub> (1 <em>E. coli</em> and 1 <em>E. cloacae</em>), respectively. In conclusion, this study revealed the detection of CRE, with the majority of <em>K. pneumoniae</em> harboring <em>bla</em><sub>NDM-1</sub> in this setting.</p> 2020-10-17T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Development of USI-Kit for Evaluation of Iodine Content in Iodized Salt 2020-06-17T21:16:23+07:00 Sakaewan OUNJAIJEAN Kongsak BOONYAPRANAI Kanokwan KULPRACHAKARN Kittipan RERKASEM <p>Iodine deficiency has been considered as a serious public health problem for the past decades. Universal salt iodization program is introduced and implemented to address such problem. To encourage this program in an effective and sustainable way, it is essential to regularly monitor whether salt is adequately iodized at various points along the supply chain. The traditional iodometric titration method has problems related to accessibility, cost, and time. Colorimetric test kits have been used extensively to measure coverage of iodized salt in household surveys due to its expediency and affordability. In Thailand, “I-KIT” is the most widely used. The visualization of intensive color, however, is inconvenient for untrained-user in determining the adequacy of iodine content. Thus, an improvement to make testing more precise and affordable is still required. In this respect, a new test kit namely USI-Kit was developed to assess iodine quality and semi-quantity in edible salt. The kit was tested to evaluate its performance, by comparing the result with the I-KIT and with the spectrophotometric method. Compared with I-Kit, the USI-Kit exerted the relative accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate and Kappa coefficient value of 74.0, 76.3, 72.6, 27.4, 23.7 and 0.47, respectively. Compared to the spectrophotometric method, USI-Kit exerted the relative accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate and Kappa coefficient value of 85.4, 80.1, 89.3, 10.7, 19.9 and 0.70, respectively. The finding suggested that a newly developed iodine test kit holds promise to be used in field inspection of iodine content in salt.</p> 2020-10-17T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020