Development and Validation of Corona Virus Anxiety Scale (CVAS)


  • Afreen FAIZA Research Associate, Ilma University (Formerly Institute of Business & Technology), Karachi, Pakistan


Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CVAS), Development, Reliability, Validity, Self-report


Background and Objectives: The advent of 2020 was eclipsed by an epidemic crisis of COVID-19. The swift spread of fatal viruses creates paralyzing apprehensions among all human beings and has produced a need to develop a sound psychometric scale to measure anxiety related to COVID-19.

Methods: Items for a Corona Virus Anxiety Scale (CVAS) emerged from literature reviews, a SARS fear scale, and qualitative analysis of interviews. After successive item modifications and pilot-testing, the 17-item self-reported CVAS was administered to (N = 256) participants. A sample of (N = 45) individuals was recruited for determination of CVAS construct validity with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R).

Results: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) showed 3 factors with 57.46 % variance, Fear of Infection and Death (FOIAD), Social Isolation (SI), and Loss of Control and Helplessness (LOCAH). Item-total correlation values ranged from (r = 0.46 to 0.63, p < 0.01). Overall, CVAS showed a high-value Cronbach alpha reliability (α = 0.896); alpha reliabilities for subscales also lay in acceptable ranges. The relationship between CVAS and IES-R suggests significant and positive correlation values (r = 0.477, **p < 0.01), demonstrating the construct validity of the newly-developed CVAS.

Interpretation and Conclusions: CVAS is a reliable and valid self-reporting tool for screening of anxieties about COVID-19 among the general population.


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How to Cite

FAIZA, A. . (2020). Development and Validation of Corona Virus Anxiety Scale (CVAS). Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 17(9), 958-966. Retrieved from