Endosulfan Increases IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α Production in Pregnant Rats and Causes Fetal Brain Cell Apoptosis

  • Sri ANDARINI Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia
  • Asmika MADJRI Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia
  • Hidayat SUJUTI Department of Biochemistry and Biomolecular, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia
  • Romi ROMI Medical Education Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145
  • Adi Surya PRATAMA Medical Education Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia
  • IIndra Jabbar AZIS Medical Education Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia
  • Elita RIYU Medical Education Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia
  • Tarbiyah CATUR Medical Education Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia
  • Febri ARIADI Medical Education Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia
  • Asri MAHARANI Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Keywords: Endosulfan, proinflammatory cytokine, brain cells, apoptosis, pregnant rats

Abstract

Endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant commonly used as an insecticide in Indonesia. It has been reported to cause teratogenic effects, i.e., to decrease humoral activity, produce inflammation, and induce apoptosis in various type of cells. This study investigated the effect of endosulfan on the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α in rats (Rattus norvegicus), as well as the incidence of fetal brain cell apoptosis. This experiment was carried out on pregnant rats divided into 4 groups: negative control (I), endosulfan: 1 mg/kg (II), 10 mg/kg (III), and 50 mg/kg (IV). The solution of endosulfan was given daily during the 20-day test period. Rat serum was collected for the measurement of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α using the ELISA kit. Fetal rat brains were taken and stained with Annexin V for apoptosis detection. The proinflammatory cytokine levels in Groups II, III, and IV were higher than in Group I, with significant increases of IL-1β (p = 0.016), IL-6 (p = 0.009), IL-17 (p < 0.001), and TNF-α (p < 0.001). The intensity of Annexin V in 4 groups of rats showed that the incidence of apoptosis increased with increasing endosulfan doses. In conclusion, the administration of endosulfan in pregnant rats increased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α and triggered apoptosis in fetal brain cells.

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Published
2019-04-04
How to Cite
[1]
S. ANDARINI, “Endosulfan Increases IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α Production in Pregnant Rats and Causes Fetal Brain Cell Apoptosis”, Walailak J Sci & Tech, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 103-112, Apr. 2019.