Effect of Cyanobacteria (Nostoc species) Extracts on Osteogenesis

Phatthilakorn Chamnanpuen, Veena Nukoolkarn, Sophon Sirisattha, Thanchanok Muangman


This study focused on osteogenesis activities from cyanobacteria (Nostoc species), including cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell mineralization with osteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1). The four Nostoc species; N. parmelioides, N punctiforme, N. muscorum and N. paludosum were made axenic and cultured for a month. The ethanolic crude extracts were obtained by maceration extraction; the yield was in the range of 7.00%-10.00% (w/w). By using the TLC technique, it was observed that in all of the samples, there are phytochemical bands corresponding with β-carotene and chlorophyll a, which are used as standard compounds. As a result, all crude extracts had no toxic effect on osteoblast cells after being incubated for 24 and 48 hours with various concentrations (1-1,000 µg/mL), although they did not significantly promote osteoblast proliferation. In addition, it was found that 3 crude extracts (N. parmelioides, N punctiforme, and N. paludosum) also promoted osteoblast differentiation significantly after being induced for 9 days, whereas there was no difference between the relative cellular mineralization among treatment groups after being induced for 25 days. The potential ethanolic extracts on osteoblast cell differentiation were further partitioned by liquid-liquid extraction (hexane, dichloromethane and methanol parts), and were analyzed for osteoblast differentiation with ALP assay. All of the crude, hexane and dichloromethane extracts had a significantly higher effect of ALP activity than did methanol extract. In conclusion, our data suggested that the nonpolar potential major compound, which might correspond with carotenoids (β-carotene, xanthophyll and chlorophyll a) from Nostoc species, exhibited positive effects on osteoblast differentiation by increasing the alkaline phosphatase enzyme. 


Nostoc species; cyanobacteria; bone formation; osteogenesis; osteoblast differentiation


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